Project #16: Sound – Attack & Decay – Mk12

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#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #adsr #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

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Attack & Decay

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Attack & Decay

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Attack & Decay

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Attack & Decay

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This assumes a conventional ADSR where the sustain continues at the same level as the decay, till the release ramps to 0. The most common kind of envelope generator has four stages: attack, decay, sustain, and release (ADSR). Set the attack and decay levels of the ADSR. Attack is the time taken for initial run-up of level from nil to peak, beginning when the key is pressed. Decay is the time taken for the subsequent run down from the attack level to the designated sustain level.

In the typical synthesizer, the Attack stage begins when a key is pressed. The Attack stage usually offers control of duration that is, the amount of time it takes to ascend to a high voltage level after the key is pressed. When used to modulate a VCA’s level, this allows for everything from very sudden, abrupt note onsets to slow swells that gradually fade in from nothingness. VCAs have many applications, including audio level compression, synthesizers and amplitude modulation.

After the Attack stage has reached its end, the highest point in the envelope’s cycle, the Decay stage commences. The Decay stage also offers definable duration: in this case, the amount of time it takes to fall from this high level. By using moderate Attack and Decay times and a relatively low, one can create sounds that begin with a swelled attack: a sound that increases in volume, decreases in volume, and then settles in at a low, continuous volume.

DL2011Mk06

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
2 x Potentiometer
2 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
9 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 9
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 10
PO0 – Analog A0
PO1 – Analog A1
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk06p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Attack & Decay - Mk12
// 11-06
// DL2011Mk06p.ino 16-12
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 2 x Potentiometer
// 2 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 9 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Mozzi
#include 
#include 
#include 
// Oscillator Tables used for output Waveshape
#include 

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 10; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

//Oscillator Functions declared for output envelope 1 
// Sine Wave
Oscil <2048, AUDIO_RATE> aSin1(SIN2048_DATA);

// ADSR declaration/definition
// Comment out to use default control rate of 64
#define CONTROL_RATE 128
ADSR  envelope1;

// Set the input for the potentiometer Attack to analog pin 0
const int potAttack = A0;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for Decay to analog pin 1
const int potDecay = A1;
// Attack
int attack_level = 0;
int iAttack = 0;
// Decay
int decay_level = 0;
int iDecay = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-12";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Choose envelope levels
  // attack_level
  iAttack = mozziAnalogRead( potAttack );
  attack_level = map( iAttack, 0, 1023, 0, 255);
  // decay_level
  iDecay = mozziAnalogRead( potDecay );
  decay_level = map( iDecay, 0, 1023, 0, 255);
  // set AD Levels
  envelope1.setADLevels(attack_level,decay_level);

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteA);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteB);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteC);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteD);
      
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteE);    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteF);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteG);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteAA);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();

}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // ADSR declaration/definition
  envelope1.update();
  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return (int) (envelope1.next() * aSin1.next())>>8;
 
}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = 6;

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();
  
  // Start Mozzi
  startMozzi( CONTROL_RATE );
  // Sets Attack and Decay Levels; assumes Sustain, Decay, and Idle times
  envelope1.setADLevels(200,200);
  // Sets Decay time in milliseconds
  envelope1.setDecayTime(100);
  // Sustain Time setting for envelope1
  envelope1.setSustainTime(32500); 

}

Sounds

http://www.donluc.com/DLE/sounds.html

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
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  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • PIC Microcontrollers
  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

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http://www.donluc.com/DLE/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

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Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Mozzi ADSR – Mk11

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #adsr #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

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Mozzi ADSR

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Mozzi ADSR

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Mozzi ADSR

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Envelope Music

In sound and music, an envelope describes how a sound changes over time. It may relate to elements such as amplitude (volume), filters (frequencies) or pitch. For example, a piano key, when struck and held, creates a near-immediate initial sound which gradually decreases in volume to zero. Envelope generators, which allow users to control the different stages of a sound, are common features of synthesizers, samplers, and other electronic musical instruments. The most common form of envelope generator is controlled with four parameters: attack, decay, sustain and release (ADSR).

A Simple ADSR Envelope Generator

This implementation has separate update and next methods, where next interpolates values between each update. The normal way to use this would be with update in update control, where it calculates a new internal state each control step, and then next is in update audio, called much more often, where it interpolates between the control values. This also allows the ADSR updates to be made even more sparsely if desired, eg. every 3rd control update.

Template Parameters

Control Update Rate: The frequency of control updates. Ordinarily this will be control rate, but an alternative (amongst others) is to set this as well as the lerp rate parameter to audio rate, and call both update and next in update audio. Such a use would allow accurate envelopes with finer resolution of the control points than control rate.

Lerp Rate: Sets how often next will be called, to interpolate between updates set by control update rate. This will produce the smoothest results if it’s set to audio rate, but if you need to save processor time and your envelope changes slowly or controls something like a filter where there may not be problems with glitchy or clicking transitions, lerp rate could be set to control rate (for instance). Then update and next could both be called in update control, greatly reducing the amount of processing required compared to calling next in update audio.

Oscil Sine Wave

Oscil plays a wavetable, cycling through the table to generate an audio or control signal. The frequency of the signal can be set or changed with frequency, and the output of an Oscil can be produced with next for a simple cycling oscillator, for a particular sample in the table.

DL2011Mk05

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 9
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 10
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk05p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Mozzi ADSR - Mk11
// 11-05
// DL2011Mk05p.ino 16-11
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Mozzi
#include 
#include 
#include 
// Oscillator Tables used for output Waveshape
#include 

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 10; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

//Oscillator Functions declared for output envelope 1 
// Sine Wave
Oscil <2048, AUDIO_RATE> aSin1(SIN2048_DATA);

// ADSR declaration/definition
// Comment out to use default control rate of 64
#define CONTROL_RATE 128
ADSR  envelope1;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-11";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteA);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteB);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteC);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteD);
      
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteE);    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteF);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteG);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteAA);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();

}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // ADSR declaration/definition
  envelope1.update();
  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return (int) (envelope1.next() * aSin1.next())>>8;
 
}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = 6;

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();
  
  // Start Mozzi
  startMozzi( CONTROL_RATE );
  // Sets Attack and Decay Levels; assumes Sustain, Decay, and Idle times
  envelope1.setADLevels(200,200);
  // Sets Decay time in milliseconds
  envelope1.setDecayTime(100);
  // Sustain Time setting for envelope1
  envelope1.setSustainTime(32500);

}

Sounds

http://www.donluc.com/DLE/sounds.html

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • PIC Microcontrollers
  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLE/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLE/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Thumb Joystick – Mk10

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Thumb Joystick

——

Thumb Joystick

——

Thumb Joystick

——

Thumb Joystick

——

Thumb Joystick

This is a joystick very similar to the analog joysticks on PS2 controllers. Directional movements are simply two potentiometers, one for each axis. Pots are 10k Ohm each. This joystick also has a select button that is actuated when the joystick is pressed down. This is the breakout board for the thumb joystick. Pins are broken out to a 0.1″ header and includes 4 mounting holes in the corners.

Mozzi

Mozzi synthesis wave packet double, selects 2 overlapping streams. In a wave packet is a short burst of localized wave action that travels as a unit. A wave packet can be synthesized from, an infinite set of component sinusoidal waves of different wavenumbers, with phases and amplitudes such that they interfere constructively only over a small region of space, and destructively elsewhere. Synthesizer and used a capacitor to store and slowly release voltage produced. He refined the design to remove the need to push a separate button one to produce the control voltage determining pitch and the other to trigger the envelope generator. The envelope generator became a standard feature of synthesizers.

Arduino

Joystick vertical potentiometer a fundamental, joystick horizontal potentiometer a bandwidth, potentiometer centre frequency and a select button that is actuated when the joystick is pressed down a random number.

DL2011Mk04

1 x Arduino Uno
1 x Thumb Joystick
1 x SparkFun Thumb Joystick Breakout
1 x Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
5 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
4 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

Arduino Uno

SPK – Digital 9
JSV – Analog A0
JSH – Analog A1
PO2 – Analog A2
SEL – Digital 13
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk04p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Thumb Joystick - Mk10
// 11-04
// DL2011Mk04p.ino 16-10
// 1 x Arduino Uno
// 1 x Thumb Joystick
// 1 x SparkFun Thumb Joystick Breakout
// 1 x Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 5 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 4 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

// Include the Library Code
// Mozzi
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

// Store the Arduino pin associated with each axis X of the joystick input
// FUNDAMENTAL
const int JoystickVert = A0;
// Store the Arduino pin associated with each axis Y of the joystick input
// BANDWIDTH
const int JoystickHorz = A1;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for volume to analog pin 2
// CENTREFREQ
const char PotCENTREFREQ = A2;
// Select button is triggered when joystick is pressed
const int SEL = 13;
// Variables for reading the pushbutton status
int selState  = 0; 

// for smoothing the control signals
// use: RollingAverage  myThing
// FUNDAMENTAL
RollingAverage  kAverageF;
// BANDWIDTH
RollingAverage  kAverageBw;
// CENTREFREQ
RollingAverage  kAverageCf;

// Min and max values of synth parameters to map AutoRanged analog inputs to
// FUNDAMENTAL
const int MIN_F = 10;
const int MAX_F = 200;
// BANDWIDTH
const int MIN_BW = 10;
const int MAX_BW = 1000;
// CENTREFREQ
const int MIN_CF = 60;
const int MAX_CF = 2000;

// Auto Map
// FUNDAMENTAL
AutoMap kMapF(0,1023,MIN_F,MAX_F);
// BANDWIDTH
AutoMap kMapBw(0,1023,MIN_BW,MAX_BW);
// CENTREFREQ
AutoMap kMapCf(0,1023,MIN_CF,MAX_CF);

// Wave Packet
// DOUBLE selects 2 overlapping streams
WavePacket  wavey;

// Random Number
long randNumber;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-10";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Wavey
  // Fundamental
  int fundamental = mozziAnalogRead( JoystickVert )+1;
  fundamental = kMapF(fundamental);
  
  // Bandwidth
  int bandwidth = mozziAnalogRead( JoystickHorz );
  // Select button is triggered when joystick is pressed
  bandwidth = kMapBw(bandwidth);

  //Centre Frequency
  int centre_freq = mozziAnalogRead( PotCENTREFREQ );
  selState = digitalRead( SEL ); 
  if (selState == HIGH)
  {
    
    randNumber = random(300);
    centre_freq = randNumber;

  }
  centre_freq = kMapCf(centre_freq);
  
  // Wavey
  wavey.set(fundamental, bandwidth, centre_freq);

}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return wavey.next()>>8;
 
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Select button is triggered when joystick is pressed
  pinMode(SEL, INPUT_PULLUP);
  // Start Mozzi
  startMozzi();

}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Mozzi – Mk09

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

Currently your Arduino can only beep like a microwave oven. Mozzi brings your Arduino to life by allowing it to produce much more complex and interesting growls, sweeps and chorusing atmospherics. These sounds can be quickly and easily constructed from familiar synthesis units like oscillators, delays, filters and envelopes. You can use Mozzi to generate algorithmic music for an installation or performance, or make interactive sonifications of sensors, on a small, modular and super cheap Arduino, without the need for additional shields, message passing or external synths.

Wavepacket Synthesis Arduino

Wavepacket synthesis, with two overlapping streams of wave packets. Each packet is an enveloped grain of a sin (or cos) wave. The frequency of the wave, the width of the envelopes and the rate of release of envelopes are the parameters which can be changed. Potentiometer A0 Fundamental, the rate at which packets are produced. Potentiometer A1 Bandwidth, the width of each packet. A lower value allows more of the centre frequency to be audible, a rounder sound. A higher value produces narrower packets, a more buzzing sound. Potentiometer A2 Centrefreq, the oscillation frequency within each packet.

DL2011Mk03

1 x Arduino Uno
3 x Potentiometer
3 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
7 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
6 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

Arduino Uno

SPK – Digital 9
PO0 – Analog A0
PO1 – Analog A1
PO2 – Analog A2
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk03p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Mozzi - Mk09
// 11-03
// DL2011Mk03p.ino 16-09
// 1 x Arduino Uno
// 3 x Potentiometer
// 3 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 7 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 6 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

// Include the Library Code
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

// Set the input for the potentiometer fundamental to analog pin 0
const int PotFun = A0;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for bandwidth to analog pin 1
const int PotBan = A1;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for centre_freq to analog pin 2
const int PotFre = A2;

// Min and Max values of synth parameters
// to map AutoRanged analog inputs to
// Fundamental
const int MIN_F = 20;
const int MAX_F = 150;
// Bandwidth
const int MIN_BW = 20;
const int MAX_BW = 150;
//Centre Frequency
const int MIN_CF = 20;
const int MAX_CF = 150;

// For smoothing the control signals
// RollingAverage  myThing
// Fundamental
RollingAverage  kAverageF;
// Bandwidth
RollingAverage  kAverageBw;
//Centre Frequency
RollingAverage  kAverageCf;

// Intmap is a pre-calculated faster version of Arduino's map
IntMap kMapF(0,1023,MIN_F,MAX_F);
// AutoMap adapts to range of input as it arrives
AutoMap kMapBw(0,1023,MIN_BW,MAX_BW);
AutoMap kMapCf(0,1023,MIN_CF,MAX_CF);

// DOUBLE selects 2 overlapping streams
WavePacket  wavey;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-09";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Fundamental
  int fundamental = mozziAnalogRead( PotFun )+1;
  fundamental = kMapF(fundamental);
  
  // Bandwidth
  int bandwidth = mozziAnalogRead( PotBan );
  bandwidth = kMapBw(bandwidth);

  //Centre Frequency
  int centre_freq = mozziAnalogRead( PotFre );
  centre_freq = kMapCf(centre_freq);
  
  // Wavey
  wavey.set(fundamental, bandwidth, centre_freq);
  
}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return wavey.next()>>8;
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Wait before starting Mozzi to receive analog reads,
  // so AutoRange will not get 0
  delay(200);
  startMozzi();
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Synthesizer – Mk08

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #555 #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Synthesizer

——

Synthesizer

——

It is 2015 an microcontroller-based (Arduino), 2 x 555 timer IC music synthesizer. It will be both a hardware and a software synthesizer.

DL2011Mk02

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 3.3V/8MHz
16 x Tactile Button
4 x 1K Potentiometer
4 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
2 x 555 Timer IC
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
Etc…

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 3.3V/8MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
PO1 – Analog A2
VIN – +3.3V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk02p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Synthesizer - Mk08
// 11-02
// DL2011Mk02p.ino 16-08
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 3.3V/8MHz
// 16 x Tactile Button
// 4 x 1K Potentiometer
// 4 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 2 x 555 Timer IC 
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 3.3V
// Etc...

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  15  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iCap = A2;
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-08";

void loop() {

  // Rotary Switch
  //isRotary();
  
  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteA, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteB, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteC, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteD, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteE, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteF, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteG, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteAA, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 1, 6);

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
 
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
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Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

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Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Tuning – Mk07

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

Frequencies for equal-tempered scale. The pitches the frequencies of the twelve notes between note A, and note A one octave up from it. Higher pitched notes have larger frequency steps between them, but each step makes an equal change to difference in pitch (one semitone) that we perceive. The piano keyboard is one of the classic ways of viewing the Chromatic scale. Also, the whole pattern of note names repeats after every seven white notes.

There are two main properties of a regular vibration, the amplitude and the frequency, which affect the way it sounds. Amplitude is the size of the vibration, and this determines how loud the sound is. We have already seen that larger vibrations make a louder sound. It is also the origin of the word amplifier, a device which increases the amplitude of a waveform. Frequency is the speed of the vibration, and this determines the pitch of the sound. It is only useful or meaningful for musical sounds, where there is a strongly regular waveform.

Arduino

This simple keyboard how to use the to generate different pitches depending on which button is pressed. A potentiometer is a simple mechanical device that provides a varying amount of resistance when its shaft is turned. By passing voltage through a potentiometer and into an analog input on your board, it is possible to measure the amount of resistance produced by a potentiometer as an analog value. Re-maps a number from one range to another. That is, a value of from Low would get mapped to Low, a value of from High to High. Range Frequency Note Low => Note High. Read the state of the pushbutton value, Low a frequency of High.

DL2011Mk01

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x 1K Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
PO1 – Analog A0
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk01p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Tuning - Mk07
// 11-01
// DL2011Mk01p.ino 16-07
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x 1K Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  16  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iCap = A0;
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-07";

void loop() {

  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteA, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteB, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteC, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteD, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteE, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteF, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteG, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteAA, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 1, 6);

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc...)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc...)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc...)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc...)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Audacity – Mk06

——

#donluc #sound #audacity #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Audacity

——

Audacity

Audacity

Free, open source, cross-platform audio software. Audacity is an easy-to-use, multi-track audio editor and recorder for Windows, macOS, GNU/Linux and other operating systems. Developed by a group of volunteers as open source.

Recording

Audacity can record live audio through a microphone or mixer, or digitize recordings from other media.

Export / Import

Import, edit, and combine sound files. Export your recordings in many different file formats, including multiple files at once.

Sound Quality

Supports 16-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit. Sample rates and formats are converted using high-quality resampling and dithering.

Plugins

Support for LADSPA, LV2, Nyquist, VST and Audio Unit effect plug-ins. Nyquist effects can be easily modified in a text editor – or you can even write your own plug-in.

Editing

Easy editing with Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete. Also unlimited sequential Undo (and Redo) in the session to go back any number of steps.

Effects

Real-time preview of LADSPA, LV2, VST and Audio Unit (macOS) effects. Plug-in Manager handles plug-in installation and addition/removal of effects and generators from the menus.

Accessibility

Tracks and selections can be fully manipulated using the keyboard. Large range of keyboard shortcuts.

Analysis

Spectrogram view mode for visualizing and selecting frequencies. Plot Spectrum window for detailed frequency analysis.

Arduino

The keyboard functions prevent Arduino Uno a processor ATmega328P to send keystrokes to an attached computer through their micro’s native USB port. Keyboard processor ATmega32U4 command the Leonardo, Micro, Due board, Pro Micro, and Fio v3. The approximately 150 most important functions in Audacity can be controlled and triggered with shortcuts, by pressing multiple keys on the computer keyboard. Keyboard Serial listens for a byte coming from the serial port. When received, the board sends a keystroke back to the computer.

DL2010Mk05

1 x Fio v3 – ATmega32U4
1 x 4×4 Matrix Keypad
8 x Jumper Wires 6in M/F
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

Fio v3 – ATmega32U4

KP2 – Digital 2
KP3 – Digital 3
KP4 – Digital 4
KP5 – Digital 5
KP6 – Digital 6
KP7 – Digital 7
KP8 – Digital 8
KP9 – Digital 9
VIN – +3.3V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk05p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Audacity - Mk06
// 10-05
// DL2010Mk05p.ino 16-06
// 1 x Fio v3 - ATmega32U4
// 1 x 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// 8 x Jumper Wires 6in M/F
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

// Include the Library Code
// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
#include 
#include "Keyboard.h"

// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// Four rows
const byte ROWS = 4;
// Four columns
const byte COLS = 4;
// Define the symbols on the buttons of the keypads
char hexaKeys[ROWS][COLS] = {
  {'1','2','3','A'},
  {'4','5','6','B'},
  {'7','8','9','C'},
  {'*','0','#','D'}
};
// Connect to the row pinouts of the keypad
byte rowPins[ROWS] = {5, 4, 3, 2};
// Connect to the column pinouts of the keypad
byte colPins[COLS] = {9, 8, 7, 6};

// Initialize an instance of class NewKeypad
Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS); 

char customKey;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-06";

void loop() {

  // 4x4 Matrix Keypad
  isKeypad();

  delay( 50 );
  
}

getKeypad.ino

// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// Keypad
void isKeypad() {

  // 4x4 Matrix Keypad
  customKey = customKeypad.getKey();

  if ( customKey == '0' ){
    
    // 0 = Go to Selection Start
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('[');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '1' ){

    // 1 = Increase gain on focused track 1 dB.
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_ALT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_UP_ARROW);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();

  } 

  if ( customKey == '2' ){
    
    // 2 = Zoom In
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('1');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '3' ){
    
    // 3 = Play/Stop
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('A');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '4' ){
    
    // 4 = Decrease gain on focused track 1 dB.
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_ALT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_DOWN_ARROW);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '5' ){
    
    // 5 = Zoom Normal
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('2');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '6' ){
    
    // 6 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '7' ){
    
    // 7 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '8' ){
    
    // 8 = Zoom Out
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('3');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '9' ){
    
    // 9 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'A' ){
    
    // A = Skip to Start
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_HOME);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'B' ){
    
    // B = Skip to End
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_END);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'C' ){
    
    // C = 
     
  } 
  
  if ( customKey == 'D' ){
    
    // D = 
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == '*' ){
    
     // * =
     
  }

  if ( customKey == '#' ){
    
     // # =
     
  }

}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Open the serial port
  Serial.begin(9600);
  // Initialize control over the keyboard
  Keyboard.begin();
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Waveform – Mk05

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

In acoustics the waveform of a signal is the shape of its graph as a function of time, independent of its time and magnitude scales and of any displacement in time. In acoustics, it is usually applied to steady periodic sounds—variations of pressure in air or other media. In these cases, the waveform is an attribute that is independent of the frequency, amplitude, or phase shift of the signal. The term can also be used for non-periodic signals, like chirps and pulses. There are certain wave types that are historically used in electronic music, known as classic waveforms: sine, sawtooth, square, and triangle. These are the four waveforms generated by the classic Moog synthesizer oscillators, and are still quite useful in computer music.

Sine Wave

To the human ear, a sound that is made of more than one sine wave will have perceptible harmonics; addition of different sine waves results in a different waveform and thus changes the timbre of the sound. Presence of higher harmonics in addition to the fundamental causes variation in the timbre, which is the reason why the same musical note played on different instruments sounds different.

Synthesizer

A synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals. Synthesizers generate audio through methods including subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, and frequency modulation synthesis. These sounds may be shaped and modulated by components such as filters, envelopes, and low-frequency oscillators. Synthesizers are typically played with keyboards.

Simple keyboard in Arduino is a single-oscillator digital synthesizer generates a square wave tone(). But this simply a square wave and so it sounds rather boring. With a simple trick we can generate any waveform with an Arduino, and with this even imitate musical instruments. The adsr object provides a signal in the shape of an ADSR envelope (attack, decay, sustain, release) commonly used in synthesizer design. You specify an attack time in ms, a decay time in ms, a sustain level, and a release time in ms. Arduino waveform sine wave!

DL2010Mk04

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk04p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Waveform - Mk05
// 10-04
// DL2010Mk04p.ino 16-05
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  16  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-05";

void loop() {

  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_A4, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_B4, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_C5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_D5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_E5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_F5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_G5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_A5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc...)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc...)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc...)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc...)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Frequency and Pitch – Mk03

——

#donluc #sound #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

Frequency is how often something happens. Since sound is vibrations, we use frequency to describe how often something is vibrating. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz), which is simply how often per second. So, something oscillating at 1 Hz is vibrating once every second. A complete vibration is called a cycle, measured at one full peak and trough of a wave. In the early days of electronic music, the terms cycles per second (cps) was used instead of Hz.

The above picture is a sine wave, the purest representation of a single frequency or vibration. The time it takes for the wave to complete one cycle is the wave’s frequency. More vibrations per second produce higher sounding frequencies and fewer vibrations per second produce lower sounding frequencies. Tuning instruments, science experiments, testing audio equipment, testing your hearing what’s the highest frequency you can hear? Humans perceive frequency of sound waves as pitch. Each musical note corresponds to a particular frequency which can be measured in hertz. An infant’s ear is able to perceive frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The average adult human can hear sounds between 20 Hz and 16,000 Hz.

Tone

The Arduino is a single-oscillator digital synthesizer. Generates a square wave tone() of the specified frequency on a pin. The pin can be connected to a other speaker. Only one tone can be generated at a time. If the tone is playing on the same pin, the call will set its frequency. the Arduino pin on which to generate the tone. The frequency of the tone in hertz. The duration of the tone in milliseconds. By passing voltage through a potentiometer and into an analog input on your board, it is possible to measure the amount of resistance produced by a potentiometer as an frequency.

DL2010Mk02

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
1 x 1K Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
2 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 6
CAP – Analog A0
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk02p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Frequency and Pitch - Mk03
// 10-02
// DL2010Mk02p.ino 16-03
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 1 x 1K Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 2 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 1 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code

// Mini Speaker
int SPK = 6;
// Frequency
int iCap = A0;
int iFreg = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-03";

void loop() {

  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 31, 4978);
  
  // Mini Speaker  
  tone(SPK, iFreg, 20);
    
  // Delay the actual frequency of updates reads for stability
  delay(1);
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – White Noise – Mk01

——

#donluc #sound #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Sound - White Noise

——

Sound - White Noise

——

Sound - White Noise

——

White Noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. In other words, the signal has equal power in any band of a given bandwidth when the bandwidth is measured in Hz. The term is used, with this or similar meanings, in many scientific and technical disciplines, including physics, acoustical engineering, telecommunications, and statistical forecasting. White noise refers to a statistical model for signals and signal sources, rather than to any specific signal.

White noise is commonly used in the production of electronic music, usually either directly or as an input for a filter to create other types of noise signal. A simple example of white noise is a nonexistent radio station (static). White noise is also used to obtain the impulse response of an electrical circuit, in particular of amplifiers and other audio equipment. Computing, white noise is used as the basis of some random number generators.

Sounds from all frequencies we can hear. Tends to sound high pitch and tinny. This tends to be the least pleasant noise.

Simple breakout board for the 3.5mm audio jack, TRS are abbreviations for Tip / Ring / Sleeve. A TRS is often though of as stereo, as the addition of the ring gives us two contacts allowing us a left and right audio channel.

DL2009Mk01

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPT – Digital 6
SPR – Digital 7
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2009Mk01p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - White Noise - Mk01
// 09-01
// DL2009Mk01p.ino 16-01
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code

// Mini Speaker
int Tip = 6;
int Ring = 7;
long randNumber;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-01";

void loop() {

  // Mini Speaker
  randNumber = random();
  digitalWrite( Tip , randNumber ); 
  randNumber = random();
  digitalWrite( Ring , randNumber ); 
    
  // Delay the actual frequency of updates
  delayMicroseconds (50);
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Connect a speaker between ground
  pinMode(Tip, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(Ring, OUTPUT);
  // Random Seed
  randomSeed(analogRead( Tip ));
  randomSeed(analogRead( Ring ));
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc