Project #10: ESP8266 Thing – Precision RTC – Mk04

DS3231 Precision RTC FeatherWing

A Feather board without ambition is a Feather board without FeatherWings! This is the DS3231 Precision RTC FeatherWing: it adds an extremely accurate I2C-integrated Real Time Clock (RTC) with a Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator to any Feather main board. This RTC is the most precise you can get in a small, low power package. Most RTCs use an external 32kHz timing crystal that is used to keep time with low current draw.

With a CR1220 12mm lithium battery plugged into the top of the FeatherWing, you can get years of precision timekeeping, even when main power is lost. Great for datalogging and clocks, or anything where you need to really know the time.

DonLuc1901Mk03

1 x SparkFun ESP8266 Thing
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
1 x DS3231 Precision RTC FeatherWing
1 x RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
6 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
3 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

SparkFun ESP8266 Thing

LG1 – Digital 5
RHT – Digital 4
SDA – Digital 2
SCL – Digital 14
GND – GND
VIN – +3.3V

DonLuc1901Mk03p.ino

getRHT.ino

getRTCDS3231.ino

setWiFi.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #10: ESP8266 Thing – Web Server – Mk03

AP Web Server

Not only can the ESP8266 connect to a WiFi network and interact with the Internet, but it can also set up a network of its own, allowing other devices to connect directly to it. This example demonstrates how to turn the ESP8266 into an access point (AP), and serve up web pages to any connected client.

After uploading this sketch, find another device that you can connect to a WiFi network – phone, laptop, etc. Look for a network called “Thing-XXXX”, where XXXX is the last 2 bytes of the Thing’s MAC address.

WiFi => Yes

ESP8266 Thing XXXX

He sketch sets the network’s password to “donlucmk01”.

After connecting to your Thing’s AP network, load up a browser and point it to 192.168.4.1/read. The Thing should serve up a web page showing you its ADC and digital pin 12 readings:

Analog Pin = XXX
Digital Pin: XXX
Humidity and Temperature
Humidity: XX.XX%
Celsius: XX.XX*C
Fahrenheit: XX.XX*F

LED Green

After that, give 192.168.4.1/led/0 (No) and 192.168.4.1/led/1 (Yes) a try, and keep an eye on the Thing’s green LED while you do.

RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor

The RHT03 is a low cost humidity and temperature sensor with a single wire digital interface. The sensor is calibrated and doesn’t require extra components so you can get right to measuring relative humidity and temperature.

DonLuc1901Mk02

1 x SparkFun ESP8266 Thing
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
1 x RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
3 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

SparkFun ESP8266 Thing

LG1 – Digital 5
RHT – Digital 4
GND – GND
VIN – +3.3V

DonLuc1901Mk02p.ino

getRHT.ino

setWiFi.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #10: ESP8266 Thing – Blink – Mk02

Soldering

Plated through-hole soldering (PTH), flux-core solder alloys commonly used for electrical soldering are 60/40 Sn-Pb used principally in electrical/electronic work and TENMA soldering station temperature controlled digital.

Hardware Assembly

We’re getting ahead of ourselves. To connect the FTDI programmer to your Thing you’ll need to solder something to the Thing. What, exactly, you solder to the board depends both on how you’ll use it in your project, and how you’ll interface it with the programmer. When it comes to selecting a header (or wire) to solder, there are a variety of options. We’ve tried a lot of them with the Thing:

Or you can mix and match headers to best fit your needs. Right-angle male headers may help to interface between the FTDI and the Thing. Straight male headers are a good choice for low-profile connections. Straight female headers may help with connecting to I2C sensors. And, of course, wire can be soldered to any of the pins that have a long way to connect to something.

10 pin – Break Away Headers – Straight
4 pin – Break Away Headers – Straight
6 pin – Break Away Male Headers – Right Angle

Once you’ve soldered up at least the programming port, you’re ready to load some code onto the Thing.

Programming the Thing

The ESP8266 has a built-in serial bootloader, which allows for easy programming and re-programming. You don’t need a specialized, expensive programmer – just a simple, USB-to-Serial converter. The FTDI Basic’s 6-pin header matches up exactly to the Thing’s 6-pin serial port header. To set up for programming, simply connect the FTDI directly to this port – take care to match up the DTR and GND pins.

Blink

Let’s blink some LEDs and IoT (Internet our Thing). To verify that everything works Blink: toggle pin 5, which is attached to the onboard LED Green, toggle pin 4 which is LED Green.

DonLuc1901Mk01

1 x SparkFun ESP8266 Thing
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
1 x LED Green
1 x 100 Ohm
4 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to Mini-B

SparkFun ESP8266 Thing

LG1 – Digital 5
LG2 – Digital 4
GND – GND
VIN – +3.3V

DonLuc1901Mk01p.ino


setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #10: SparkFun ESP8266 Thing – Mk01

Description

The SparkFun ESP8266 Thing is a breakout and development board for the ESP8266 WiFi SoC – a leading platform for Internet of Things (IoT) or WiFi-related projects. The Thing is low-cost and easy to use, and Arduino IDE integration can be achieved in just a few steps. We’ve made the ESP8266 easy to use by breaking out all of the module’s pins, adding a LiPo charger, power supply, and all of the other supporting circuitry it requires.

Why the name? We lovingly call it the “Thing” due to it being the perfect foundation for your Internet of Things project. The Thing does everything from turning on an LED to posting data with datastream, and can be programmed just like any microcontroller. You can even program the Thing through the Arduino IDE by installing the ESP8266 Arduino addon.

The SparkFun ESP8266 Thing is a relatively simple board. The pins are broken out to two parallel, breadboard-compatible rows. USB and LiPo connectors at the top of the board provide power – controlled by the nearby ON/OFF switch. LEDs towards the inside of the board indicate power, charge, and status of the IC. The ESP8266’s maximum voltage is 3.6V, so the Thing has an onboard 3.3V regulator to deliver a safe, consistent voltage to the IC. That means the ESP8266’s I/O pins also run at 3.3V, you’ll need to level shift any 5V signals running into the IC. A 3.3V FTDI Basic is required to program the SparkFun ESP8266 Thing, but other serial converters with 3.3V I/O levels should work just fine as well. The converter does need a DTR line in addition to the RX and TX pins.

Features

  • All module pins broken out
  • On-board LiPo charger/power supply
  • 802.11 b/g/n
  • Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP
  • Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack
  • Integrated TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network
  • Integrated PLLs, regulators, DCXO and power management units
  • Integrated low power 32-bit CPU could be used as application processor
  • +19.5dBm output power in 802.11b mode

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – MCP4131 – Mk10

Microchip Technology Inc – MCP4131

Features:

-7-bit: 128 Resistors with 129 Taps to VSS and VDD
-SPI compatible interface
-Automatic Recall of Potentiometer Wiper Settings Resistance Values: 5k Ohm, 10k Ohm, 50k Ohm, 100k Ohm
-Absolute (Rheostat): <100 ppm (typ.) -Ratiometric (Potentiometer): <10 ppm (typ.) Device Overview – Summary

The MCP41/423X devices are volatile, 7-bit (129 wiper steps) digital potentiometers with an SPI compatible interface. The MCP41/42XX family is available with end-to-end resistor values of 5K Ohm, 10K Ohm, 50k Ohm and 100K Ohm. These devices offer a variety of configurations simplifying design while minimizing cost, package size and pin count.

Additional Features

-7-bit: 128 Resistors with 129 Taps to VSS and VDD
-SPI compatible interface
-Automatic Recall of Potentiometer Wiper Settings Resistance Values: 5k Ohm, 10k Ohm, 50k Ohm, 100k Ohm
-Low Tempco: Absolute (Rheostat): <100 ppm (typ.) -Ratiometric (Potentiometer): <10 ppm (typ.) -Low Wiper Resistance: 100 Ohm (typ.) -Low-Power Operation: 1µA Max Static Current -Wide Operating Voltage: 1.8V to 5.5V -Extended Temperature Range: -40°C to +125°C MCP4131 – Digital Potentiometer – 10K

Potentiometers are incredibly useful, whether you’re controlling the volume on your stereo or the ‘mood lighting’ in your room. The problem with traditional potentiometers is the fact that your microcontroller doesn’t have an easy way to interface with them. Digital potentiometers solve that problem by allowing you to control a voltage splitter with digital signals.

Wire it up just like a potentiometer and use serial signals to ‘turn the knob’. Another handy feature of digital potentiometers is that because they aren’t controlled mechanically, they don’t have a pre-determined sweep profile. In other words, depending on the way you write your code the potentiometer can ‘sweep’ in a linear fashion, a logarithmic fashion, or according to any other profile you like. Digital potentiometers can also be used in conjunction with rotary encoders to consolidate large banks of potentiometers into one ‘smart’ rotary control.

Digital Potentiometer MCP41131 and Arduino

We know the analog potentiometer, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers many application such like:

1- Volume controls on audio equipment
2- Control the amplifier gain and offset
3- Transducer displacement transducers

Many other application, but did you want to control the resistance value by Arduino instead of using analog one. Analog potentiometers have some problem with Arduino doesn’t have an easy way to interface with them. The digital potentiometer, give you an ability to adjust the resistance, allowing you to control a voltage splitter with digital signals. This IC using SPI Protocol to communicate with Arduino.

DonLuc1808Mk03

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x MCP4131
1 x LED Green
1 x 270 Ohm Resistance
1 x NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED
1 x 100K Potentiometer
1 x Black Knob
7 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
12 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

MC1 – Digital 13
MC2 – Digital 11
MC3 – Digital 10
LR1 – Digital 3
POT – Analog 1
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1808Mk03p.ino

getMCP4131.ino

neopix.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Bi-Color LED – Mk09

Bi-Color LED

Bi-color LEDs contain two different LED emitters in one case. There are two types of these. One type consists of two dies connected to the same two leads antiparallel to each other. Current flow in one direction emits one color, and current in the opposite direction emits the other color. The other type consists of two dies with separate leads for both dies and another lead for common anode or cathode so that they can be controlled independently. The most common bi-color combination is red/traditional green, however, other available combinations include amber/traditional green, red/pure green, red/blue, and blue/pure green.

Super Bright BiPolar LEDs

Package of 12 super bright Red/Green jumbo T1 3/4 5mm LEDs. These have a diffused frosted lens and 3 long leads. Prime 100% perfect and bright. CODE 7: 100% Prime Parts. Stock # GP55

DonLuc1808Mk02

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
3 x Bi-Color LED GP55
3 x 270 Ohm Resistance
3 x 330 Ohm Resistance
3 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
7 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

LG3 – Digital 5
LR3 – Digital 4
LG2 – Digital 3
LR2 – Digital 2
LG1 – Digital 1
LR1 – Digital 0
GND – GND

DonLuc1808Mk02p.ino

getBiColor.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Rotary Switch – Mk08

Rotary Switch – 10 Position

This is a single pole, 10 position rotary switch able to select up to 10 different states in a durable package. Unlike our other rotary switch, this model is much more robust and capable of handling larger currents and voltages.

With a max voltage rating of 125VAC at 0.3A and a dielectric strength of 250VAC for 1 minute this is a serious little rotary switch capable of working with some of your bigger projects. Though this switch requires you to use 11 pins and is not breadboard friendly we do offer a breakout board (found in the Recommended Products section below) to provide easier access to its capabilities.

1 x Rotary Switch – 10 Position
1 x Hex Nut
2 x Washer

Rating: 0.3A/125VAC
Contact Resistance: 50M Ohm max
Insulation Resistance: 100M Ohm @ 500VDC min
Dielectric Strength: 250VAC for 1 minute
Rotation torque: 1.0+0.5KG/cm
Shaft: 3/8″

Rotary Switch Breakout

This is the SparkFun Rotary Switch Breakout, a very simple board designed to easily provide you access to each pin on our 10-position rotary switches. This breakout allows you to easily add a rotary switch to your next project without having to worry about attaching its unique footprint to a custom board or solderless breadboard. All you need to do is solder the 10-position rotary switch into the breakout (using the silkscreen on the board as a guide) and each pin will become available for breadboard or hookup wire compatibility.

Each one of these boards breaks out the common ( C ), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 positions on the board into 0.1″ spaced pins.

NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED

Make your own little LED strip arrangement with this stick of NeoPixel LEDs. We crammed 8 of the tiny 5050 (5mm x 5mm) smart RGB LEDs onto a PCB with mounting holes and a chainable design. Use only one microcontroller pin to control as many as you can chain together! Each LED is addressable as the driver chip is inside the LED. Each one has ~18mA constant current drive so the color will be very consistent even if the voltage varies, and no external choke resistors are required making the design slim. Power the whole thing with 5VDC (4-7V works) and you’re ready to rock.

DonLuc1808Mk01

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Rotary Switch – 10 Position
1 x Rotary Switch Breakout
1 x Black Knob
1 x NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED
1 x 100K Potentiometer
1 x Black Knob
11 x 1K Ohm Resistance
17 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
6 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

NEO – Digital 0
ROT – Analog 1
POT – Analog 0
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1808Mk01p.ino

getRot.ino

neopix.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Line Sensor Breakout – Mk07

Line Sensor Breakout – QRE1113 (Analog)

Description

This version of the QRE1113 breakout board features an easy-to-use analog output, which will vary depending on the amount of IR light reflected back to the sensor. This tiny board is perfect for line sensing applications and can be used in both 3.3V and 5V systems.

The board’s QRE1113 IR reflectance sensor is comprised of two parts – an IR emitting LED and an IR sensitive phototransistor. When you apply power to the VCC and GND pins the IR LED inside the sensor will illuminate. A 100 Ohm resistor is on-board and placed in series with the LED to limit current. A 10k Ohm resistor pulls the output pin high, but when the light from the LED is reflected back onto the phototransistor the output will begin to go lower. The more IR light sensed by the phototransistor, the lower the output voltage of the breakout board.

These sensors are widely used in line following robots – white surfaces reflect much more light than black, so, when directed towards a white surface, the voltage output will be lower than that on a black surface.

The power input and analog output pins are brought out to a 3-pin, 0.1″ pitch header. The board also has a single mounting hole if you want to screw the board onto something.

Features

* 5VDC operating voltage
* 25mA supply current
* Optimal sensing distance: 0.125″ (3mm)
* 0.30 x 0.55 “ (7.62 x 13.97 mm)

Common Reflectance Sensor

The QRE1113 is a common reflectance sensor often used in robotic line followers. The sensor works by shining an IR LED down and seeing how much of that light bounces back using a phototransistor. Because dark colors will bounce back less of the light, the sensor can be used to tell the difference between white and black areas. So an array of these can be used to help a robot determine where a dark line is on the ground so it can follow it. But they can also be used to determine proximity under an inch.

The an analog input on your microcontroller but still need an analog reading of how much light was reflected. It does this by allowing you to charge a capacitor on the board, and then timing how long it takes to discharge. The more light that is reflected, the less time it takes to discharge the capacitor. Hooking the QRE1113 to your Arduino is very simple. It just needs power (5V), ground, and an analog pin.

DonLuc1807Mk11

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Line Sensor Breakout – QRE1113 (Analog)
3 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

CRS – Analog 0
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk11p.ino

getSeven.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Seven-Segment Display – Mk06

Seven-Segment Display

A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, basic calculators, and other electronic devices that display numerical information.

Your basic 7-segment LED. Common anode. Two decimal points, but only the one on the right is wired. Digit height is 0.6″. Overall height is 1″.

Common Cathode

In a common-cathode display, the positive terminal of all the eight LEDs are connected together and then connected to iSeven2 and iSeven8. To turn on an individual segment, you ground one of the pins. The following diagram shows the internal structure of the common-cathode seven-segment display.

The internal structure of both types is nearly the same. The difference is the polarity of the LEDs and common terminal. In a common cathode seven-segment display, all seven LEDs plus a dot LED have the cathodes connected To use this display, we need to connect VIN to make the individual segments light up. The following diagram shows the internal structure of common-cathode seven-segment display.

If your Arduino application only needs to display numbers, consider using a seven-segment display. The severn-segment display has seven LEDs arranged in the shape of number eight. They are easy to use and cost effective. The picture below shows a typical seven-segment display.

DonLuc1807Mk10

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Seven-Segment Display Red
7 x 220 ohm resistor
4 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
8 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

7S8 – Digital 8
7S7 – Digital 7
7S6 – Digital 6
7S5 – Digital 5
7S4 – Digital 4
7S3 – Digital 3
7S2 – Digital 2
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk10p.ino

getSeven.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – LED RGB – Mk05

LED RGB

LED RGB are tri-color LEDs with red, green, and blue emitters, in general using a four-wire connection with one common lead (anode or cathode). These LEDs can have either common positive leads in the case of a common anode LED, or common negative leads in the case of a common cathode LED. Others, however, have only two leads (positive and negative) and have a built-in electronic control unit.

LED RGB (Red-Green-Blue) are actually three LEDs in one! But that doesn’t mean it can only make three colors. Because red, green, and blue are the additive primary colors, you can control the intensity of each to create every color of the rainbow. Most RGB LEDs have four pins: one for each color, and a common pin. On some, the common pin is the anode, and on others, it’s the cathode.

Circuit Schematics (Common Cathode)

The cathode will be connected to the VIN and will be connected through 330 Ohms resistor. We will use PWM for simulating analog output which will provide different voltage levels to the LEDs so we can get the desired colors. We will use PWM for simulating analog output which will provide different voltage levels to the LEDs so we can get the desired colors.

Source Code

I will use the pins number 4, 3 and 2 and I will name them iRed, iGreen and iBlue. In the setup section we need to define them as outputs. At the bottom of the sketch we have this custom made function named setColor() which takes 3 different arguments red, green and blue. These arguments represents the brightness of the LEDs or the duty cycle of the PWM signal which is created using the analogWrite() function. These values can vary from 0 to 255 which represents 100 % duty cycle of the PWM signal or maximum LED brightness.

So now in the loop function we will make our program which will change the color of the LED each 2 second. In order to get red light on the LED we will call the setColor() function and set value of 255 for the iRed argument and 0 for the two others. Respectively we can get the two other basic colors, green and blue.

DonLuc1807Mk09

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x LED RGB (NSTM515AS)
1 x 330 ohm resistor
4 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

Red – Digital 4
Gre – Digital 3
Blu – Digital 2
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk09p.ino

getColor.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc