Project #16: Sound – Mozzi ADSR – Mk11

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#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #adsr #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

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Mozzi ADSR

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Mozzi ADSR

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Mozzi ADSR

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Envelope Music

In sound and music, an envelope describes how a sound changes over time. It may relate to elements such as amplitude (volume), filters (frequencies) or pitch. For example, a piano key, when struck and held, creates a near-immediate initial sound which gradually decreases in volume to zero. Envelope generators, which allow users to control the different stages of a sound, are common features of synthesizers, samplers, and other electronic musical instruments. The most common form of envelope generator is controlled with four parameters: attack, decay, sustain and release (ADSR).

A Simple ADSR Envelope Generator

This implementation has separate update and next methods, where next interpolates values between each update. The normal way to use this would be with update in update control, where it calculates a new internal state each control step, and then next is in update audio, called much more often, where it interpolates between the control values. This also allows the ADSR updates to be made even more sparsely if desired, eg. every 3rd control update.

Template Parameters

Control Update Rate: The frequency of control updates. Ordinarily this will be control rate, but an alternative (amongst others) is to set this as well as the lerp rate parameter to audio rate, and call both update and next in update audio. Such a use would allow accurate envelopes with finer resolution of the control points than control rate.

Lerp Rate: Sets how often next will be called, to interpolate between updates set by control update rate. This will produce the smoothest results if it’s set to audio rate, but if you need to save processor time and your envelope changes slowly or controls something like a filter where there may not be problems with glitchy or clicking transitions, lerp rate could be set to control rate (for instance). Then update and next could both be called in update control, greatly reducing the amount of processing required compared to calling next in update audio.

Oscil Sine Wave

Oscil plays a wavetable, cycling through the table to generate an audio or control signal. The frequency of the signal can be set or changed with frequency, and the output of an Oscil can be produced with next for a simple cycling oscillator, for a particular sample in the table.

DL2011Mk05

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 9
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 10
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk05p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Mozzi ADSR - Mk11
// 11-05
// DL2011Mk05p.ino 16-11
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Mozzi
#include 
#include 
#include 
// Oscillator Tables used for output Waveshape
#include 

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 10; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

//Oscillator Functions declared for output envelope 1 
// Sine Wave
Oscil <2048, AUDIO_RATE> aSin1(SIN2048_DATA);

// ADSR declaration/definition
// Comment out to use default control rate of 64
#define CONTROL_RATE 128
ADSR  envelope1;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-11";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteA);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteB);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteC);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteD);
      
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteE);    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteF);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteG);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // ADSR declaration/definition
    envelope1.noteOn();
    aSin1.setFreq(iNoteAA);
        
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();

}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // ADSR declaration/definition
  envelope1.update();
  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return (int) (envelope1.next() * aSin1.next())>>8;
 
}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = 6;

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();
  
  // Start Mozzi
  startMozzi( CONTROL_RATE );
  // Sets Attack and Decay Levels; assumes Sustain, Decay, and Idle times
  envelope1.setADLevels(200,200);
  // Sets Decay time in milliseconds
  envelope1.setDecayTime(100);
  // Sustain Time setting for envelope1
  envelope1.setSustainTime(32500);

}

Sounds

http://www.donluc.com/DLE/sounds.html

Technology Experience

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