Project #16: Sound – Mozzi – Mk09

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#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #mozzi #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

——

Mozzi

Currently your Arduino can only beep like a microwave oven. Mozzi brings your Arduino to life by allowing it to produce much more complex and interesting growls, sweeps and chorusing atmospherics. These sounds can be quickly and easily constructed from familiar synthesis units like oscillators, delays, filters and envelopes. You can use Mozzi to generate algorithmic music for an installation or performance, or make interactive sonifications of sensors, on a small, modular and super cheap Arduino, without the need for additional shields, message passing or external synths.

Wavepacket Synthesis Arduino

Wavepacket synthesis, with two overlapping streams of wave packets. Each packet is an enveloped grain of a sin (or cos) wave. The frequency of the wave, the width of the envelopes and the rate of release of envelopes are the parameters which can be changed. Potentiometer A0 Fundamental, the rate at which packets are produced. Potentiometer A1 Bandwidth, the width of each packet. A lower value allows more of the centre frequency to be audible, a rounder sound. A higher value produces narrower packets, a more buzzing sound. Potentiometer A2 Centrefreq, the oscillation frequency within each packet.

DL2011Mk03

1 x Arduino Uno
3 x Potentiometer
3 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Speaker
7 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
6 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

Arduino Uno

SPK – Digital 9
PO0 – Analog A0
PO1 – Analog A1
PO2 – Analog A2
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk03p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Mozzi - Mk09
// 11-03
// DL2011Mk03p.ino 16-09
// 1 x Arduino Uno
// 3 x Potentiometer
// 3 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Speaker
// 7 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 6 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

// Include the Library Code
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 

// Set the input for the potentiometer fundamental to analog pin 0
const int PotFun = A0;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for bandwidth to analog pin 1
const int PotBan = A1;
// Set the input for the potentiometer for centre_freq to analog pin 2
const int PotFre = A2;

// Min and Max values of synth parameters
// to map AutoRanged analog inputs to
// Fundamental
const int MIN_F = 20;
const int MAX_F = 150;
// Bandwidth
const int MIN_BW = 20;
const int MAX_BW = 150;
//Centre Frequency
const int MIN_CF = 20;
const int MAX_CF = 150;

// For smoothing the control signals
// RollingAverage  myThing
// Fundamental
RollingAverage  kAverageF;
// Bandwidth
RollingAverage  kAverageBw;
//Centre Frequency
RollingAverage  kAverageCf;

// Intmap is a pre-calculated faster version of Arduino's map
IntMap kMapF(0,1023,MIN_F,MAX_F);
// AutoMap adapts to range of input as it arrives
AutoMap kMapBw(0,1023,MIN_BW,MAX_BW);
AutoMap kMapCf(0,1023,MIN_CF,MAX_CF);

// DOUBLE selects 2 overlapping streams
WavePacket  wavey;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-09";

void loop() {

  // Audio Hook
  audioHook();

}

getMozzi.ino

// Mozzi
// Update Control
void updateControl(){

  // Fundamental
  int fundamental = mozziAnalogRead( PotFun )+1;
  fundamental = kMapF(fundamental);
  
  // Bandwidth
  int bandwidth = mozziAnalogRead( PotBan );
  bandwidth = kMapBw(bandwidth);

  //Centre Frequency
  int centre_freq = mozziAnalogRead( PotFre );
  centre_freq = kMapCf(centre_freq);
  
  // Wavey
  wavey.set(fundamental, bandwidth, centre_freq);
  
}
// Update Audio 
int updateAudio(){

  // >>8 for AUDIO_MODE STANDARD
  return wavey.next()>>8;
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Wait before starting Mozzi to receive analog reads,
  // so AutoRange will not get 0
  delay(200);
  startMozzi();
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
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Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Synthesizer – Mk08

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #555 #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

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Synthesizer

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Synthesizer

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It is 2015 an microcontroller-based (Arduino), 2 x 555 timer IC music synthesizer. It will be both a hardware and a software synthesizer.

DL2011Mk02

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 3.3V/8MHz
16 x Tactile Button
4 x 1K Potentiometer
4 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
2 x 555 Timer IC
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
Etc…

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 3.3V/8MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
PO1 – Analog A2
VIN – +3.3V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk02p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Synthesizer - Mk08
// 11-02
// DL2011Mk02p.ino 16-08
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 3.3V/8MHz
// 16 x Tactile Button
// 4 x 1K Potentiometer
// 4 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 2 x 555 Timer IC 
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 3.3V
// Etc...

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  15  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iCap = A2;
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-08";

void loop() {

  // Rotary Switch
  //isRotary();
  
  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteA, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteB, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteC, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteD, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteE, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteF, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteG, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteAA, 500);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 1, 6);

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
 
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc...)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc...)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc...)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc...)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
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Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Tuning – Mk07

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

——

Tuning

Frequencies for equal-tempered scale. The pitches the frequencies of the twelve notes between note A, and note A one octave up from it. Higher pitched notes have larger frequency steps between them, but each step makes an equal change to difference in pitch (one semitone) that we perceive. The piano keyboard is one of the classic ways of viewing the Chromatic scale. Also, the whole pattern of note names repeats after every seven white notes.

There are two main properties of a regular vibration, the amplitude and the frequency, which affect the way it sounds. Amplitude is the size of the vibration, and this determines how loud the sound is. We have already seen that larger vibrations make a louder sound. It is also the origin of the word amplifier, a device which increases the amplitude of a waveform. Frequency is the speed of the vibration, and this determines the pitch of the sound. It is only useful or meaningful for musical sounds, where there is a strongly regular waveform.

Arduino

This simple keyboard how to use the to generate different pitches depending on which button is pressed. A potentiometer is a simple mechanical device that provides a varying amount of resistance when its shaft is turned. By passing voltage through a potentiometer and into an analog input on your board, it is possible to measure the amount of resistance produced by a potentiometer as an analog value. Re-maps a number from one range to another. That is, a value of from Low would get mapped to Low, a value of from High to High. Range Frequency Note Low => Note High. Read the state of the pushbutton value, Low a frequency of High.

DL2011Mk01

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x 1K Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
PO1 – Analog A0
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2011Mk01p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Tuning - Mk07
// 11-01
// DL2011Mk01p.ino 16-07
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x 1K Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  16  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Frequency
int iCap = A0;
int iFreg = 0;
int iNoteA = 0;
int iNoteB = 0;
int iNoteC = 0;
int iNoteD = 0;
int iNoteE = 0;
int iNoteF = 0;
int iNoteG = 0;
int iNoteAA = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-07";

void loop() {

  // Frequency
  isPitches();
  
  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteA, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteB, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteC, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteD, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteE, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteF, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteG, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(iNoteAA, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

getPitches.ino

// Pitches
// isPitches
void isPitches(){
  
  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 1, 6);

  // Range Frequency Note Low => High
  switch ( iFreg ) {
    case 1:
      // NOTE A1
      iNoteA = NOTE_A1;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B1;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C2;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D2;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E2;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F2;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G2;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A2;
      break;
    case 2:
      // NOTE A2
      iNoteA = NOTE_A2;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B2;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C3;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D3;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E3;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F3;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G3;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A3;
      break;
    case 3:
      // NOTE A3
      iNoteA = NOTE_A3;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B3;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C4;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D4;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E4;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F4;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G4;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A4;
      break;
    case 4:
      // NOTE A4
      iNoteA = NOTE_A4;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B4;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C5;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D5;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E5;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F5;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G5;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A5;
      break;
    case 5:
      // NOTE A5
      iNoteA = NOTE_A5;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B5;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C6;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D6;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E6;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F6;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G6;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A6;
      break;
    case 6:
      // NOTE A6
      iNoteA = NOTE_A6;
      iNoteB = NOTE_B6;
      iNoteC = NOTE_C7;
      iNoteD = NOTE_D7;
      iNoteE = NOTE_E7;
      iNoteF = NOTE_F7;
      iNoteG = NOTE_G7;
      iNoteAA = NOTE_A7;
      break;
  }
  
}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc...)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc...)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc...)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc...)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Audacity – Mk06

——

#donluc #sound #audacity #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Audacity

——

Audacity

Audacity

Free, open source, cross-platform audio software. Audacity is an easy-to-use, multi-track audio editor and recorder for Windows, macOS, GNU/Linux and other operating systems. Developed by a group of volunteers as open source.

Recording

Audacity can record live audio through a microphone or mixer, or digitize recordings from other media.

Export / Import

Import, edit, and combine sound files. Export your recordings in many different file formats, including multiple files at once.

Sound Quality

Supports 16-bit, 24-bit and 32-bit. Sample rates and formats are converted using high-quality resampling and dithering.

Plugins

Support for LADSPA, LV2, Nyquist, VST and Audio Unit effect plug-ins. Nyquist effects can be easily modified in a text editor – or you can even write your own plug-in.

Editing

Easy editing with Cut, Copy, Paste and Delete. Also unlimited sequential Undo (and Redo) in the session to go back any number of steps.

Effects

Real-time preview of LADSPA, LV2, VST and Audio Unit (macOS) effects. Plug-in Manager handles plug-in installation and addition/removal of effects and generators from the menus.

Accessibility

Tracks and selections can be fully manipulated using the keyboard. Large range of keyboard shortcuts.

Analysis

Spectrogram view mode for visualizing and selecting frequencies. Plot Spectrum window for detailed frequency analysis.

Arduino

The keyboard functions prevent Arduino Uno a processor ATmega328P to send keystrokes to an attached computer through their micro’s native USB port. Keyboard processor ATmega32U4 command the Leonardo, Micro, Due board, Pro Micro, and Fio v3. The approximately 150 most important functions in Audacity can be controlled and triggered with shortcuts, by pressing multiple keys on the computer keyboard. Keyboard Serial listens for a byte coming from the serial port. When received, the board sends a keystroke back to the computer.

DL2010Mk05

1 x Fio v3 – ATmega32U4
1 x 4×4 Matrix Keypad
8 x Jumper Wires 6in M/F
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

Fio v3 – ATmega32U4

KP2 – Digital 2
KP3 – Digital 3
KP4 – Digital 4
KP5 – Digital 5
KP6 – Digital 6
KP7 – Digital 7
KP8 – Digital 8
KP9 – Digital 9
VIN – +3.3V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk05p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Audacity - Mk06
// 10-05
// DL2010Mk05p.ino 16-06
// 1 x Fio v3 - ATmega32U4
// 1 x 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// 8 x Jumper Wires 6in M/F
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable

// Include the Library Code
// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
#include 
#include "Keyboard.h"

// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// Four rows
const byte ROWS = 4;
// Four columns
const byte COLS = 4;
// Define the symbols on the buttons of the keypads
char hexaKeys[ROWS][COLS] = {
  {'1','2','3','A'},
  {'4','5','6','B'},
  {'7','8','9','C'},
  {'*','0','#','D'}
};
// Connect to the row pinouts of the keypad
byte rowPins[ROWS] = {5, 4, 3, 2};
// Connect to the column pinouts of the keypad
byte colPins[COLS] = {9, 8, 7, 6};

// Initialize an instance of class NewKeypad
Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS); 

char customKey;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-06";

void loop() {

  // 4x4 Matrix Keypad
  isKeypad();

  delay( 50 );
  
}

getKeypad.ino

// 4x4 Matrix Keypad
// Keypad
void isKeypad() {

  // 4x4 Matrix Keypad
  customKey = customKeypad.getKey();

  if ( customKey == '0' ){
    
    // 0 = Go to Selection Start
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('[');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '1' ){

    // 1 = Increase gain on focused track 1 dB.
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_ALT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_UP_ARROW);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();

  } 

  if ( customKey == '2' ){
    
    // 2 = Zoom In
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('1');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '3' ){
    
    // 3 = Play/Stop
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('A');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '4' ){
    
    // 4 = Decrease gain on focused track 1 dB.
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_ALT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_RIGHT_SHIFT);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_DOWN_ARROW);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '5' ){
    
    // 5 = Zoom Normal
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('2');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '6' ){
    
    // 6 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '7' ){
    
    // 7 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '8' ){
    
    // 8 = Zoom Out
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_LEFT_CTRL);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press('3');
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == '9' ){
    
    // 9 =
    
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'A' ){
    
    // A = Skip to Start
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_HOME);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'B' ){
    
    // B = Skip to End
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.press(KEY_END);
    delay(10);
    Keyboard.releaseAll();
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == 'C' ){
    
    // C = 
     
  } 
  
  if ( customKey == 'D' ){
    
    // D = 
     
  } 

  if ( customKey == '*' ){
    
     // * =
     
  }

  if ( customKey == '#' ){
    
     // # =
     
  }

}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Open the serial port
  Serial.begin(9600);
  // Initialize control over the keyboard
  Keyboard.begin();
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
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Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Waveform – Mk05

——

#donluc #sound #simplekeyboard #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

——

Waveform

In acoustics the waveform of a signal is the shape of its graph as a function of time, independent of its time and magnitude scales and of any displacement in time. In acoustics, it is usually applied to steady periodic sounds—variations of pressure in air or other media. In these cases, the waveform is an attribute that is independent of the frequency, amplitude, or phase shift of the signal. The term can also be used for non-periodic signals, like chirps and pulses. There are certain wave types that are historically used in electronic music, known as classic waveforms: sine, sawtooth, square, and triangle. These are the four waveforms generated by the classic Moog synthesizer oscillators, and are still quite useful in computer music.

Sine Wave

To the human ear, a sound that is made of more than one sine wave will have perceptible harmonics; addition of different sine waves results in a different waveform and thus changes the timbre of the sound. Presence of higher harmonics in addition to the fundamental causes variation in the timbre, which is the reason why the same musical note played on different instruments sounds different.

Synthesizer

A synthesizer is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals. Synthesizers generate audio through methods including subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, and frequency modulation synthesis. These sounds may be shaped and modulated by components such as filters, envelopes, and low-frequency oscillators. Synthesizers are typically played with keyboards.

Simple keyboard in Arduino is a single-oscillator digital synthesizer generates a square wave tone(). But this simply a square wave and so it sounds rather boring. With a simple trick we can generate any waveform with an Arduino, and with this even imitate musical instruments. The adsr object provides a signal in the shape of an ADSR envelope (attack, decay, sustain, release) commonly used in synthesizer design. You specify an attack time in ms, a decay time in ms, a sustain level, and a release time in ms. Arduino waveform sine wave!

DL2010Mk04

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 11
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk04p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Waveform - Mk05
// 10-04
// DL2010Mk04p.ino 16-05
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
// Pitches
#include "pitches.h"
// Waveform - Chimes
#include "chimes.h"
using namespace Chimes;
// Sum of ADSR values must not exceed 100%
uint8_t envelope[] = {
  0,  // Attack[%]
  20, // Decay[%]
  0,  // Sustain[%]
  80, // Release[%]
  16  // Sustain Level 1..32
};

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-05";

void loop() {

  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

chimes.cpp

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#include 
#include "chimes.h"

#define ISR_CYCLE 16 //16s

char strbuf[255];
uint16_t ADSR_default[] = {0, 0, 100, 0, MAX_VOLUME};
uint16_t ADSR_env[5];
uint16_t nSamples; //Number of samples in Array
uint8_t adsrPhase;
uint32_t tPeriod;
uint8_t *samples; //Array with samples
uint8_t *_envelope, _waveform, _duty_cycle;
uint16_t &_sustain_lvl = ADSR_env[4];

enum ADSR_phase
{
	ATTACK,
	DECAY,
	SUSTAIN,
	RELEASE
};

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform, uint8_t duty_cycle, uint8_t *envelope)
{
	Serial.begin(115200);
	//PWM Signal generation
	DDRB |= (1 << PB3) + (1 << PB0);				  //OC2A, Pin 11
	TCCR2A = (1 << WGM21) + (1 << WGM20);			  //Fast PWM
	TCCR2A |= (0 << COM2A0) + (1 << COM2A1);		  //Set OC2A on compare match, clear OC2A at BOTTOM,(inverting mode).
	TCCR2B = (0 << CS22) + (0 << CS21) + (1 << CS20); //No Prescaling
	samples = (uint8_t *)malloc(0);
	_waveform = waveform;
	_duty_cycle = duty_cycle;
	_envelope = envelope;
}

void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration)
{
	uint8_t waveform = _waveform;
	//Init adsr according to the length of the note
	for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
	{
		if (_envelope)
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)_envelope[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		else
		{
			ADSR_env[i] = (uint32_t)ADSR_default[i] * duration / 100;
		}
		//Serial.println(ADSR_env[i]);
	}
	ADSR_env[4] = _envelope ? _envelope[4] : MAX_VOLUME;
	//Serial.println(ADSR_env[4]);

	if (freq == 0)
	{ //Pause
		tPeriod = ISR_CYCLE * 100;
		waveform = PAUSE;
	}
	else
		tPeriod = 1E6 / freq;

	nSamples = tPeriod / ISR_CYCLE;
	realloc(samples, nSamples);
	uint16_t nDuty = (_duty_cycle * nSamples) / 100;

	switch (waveform)
	{
	case SINE: //Sinewave
		for (int i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			samples[i] = 128 + 127 * sin(2 * PI * i / nSamples);
		}
		break;

	case TRI: //Triangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			if (i < nDuty)
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (double)i / nDuty; //Rise
			}
			else
			{
				samples[i] = 255 * (1 - (double)(i - nDuty) / (nSamples - nDuty)); //Fall
			}
		}
		break;
	case RECT: //Rectangle
		for (int16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++)
		{
			i < nDuty ? samples[i] = 255 : samples[i] = 0;
		}
		break;
	case PAUSE: //Rectangle
		memset(samples, 0, nSamples);
	}
	TIMSK2 = (1 << TOIE2);
	/*for(uint16_t i = 0; i < nSamples; i++) {
		sprintf(strbuf, "%d: %d", i, samples[i]);
		Serial.println(strbuf);
	}*/
}

//Returns true, while note is playing
boolean isPlaying()
{
	return (1 << TOIE2) & TIMSK2;
}
} // namespace Chimes

//Called every 16s, when TIMER1 overflows
ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
{
	static uint32_t adsr_timer, adsr_time;
	static uint16_t cnt; //Index counter
	static uint8_t sustain_lvl, vol;

	//Set OCR2A to the next value in sample array, this will change the duty cycle accordingly
	OCR2A = vol * samples[cnt] / MAX_VOLUME;
	if (cnt < nSamples - 1)
	{
		cnt++;
	}
	else
	{
		cnt = 0;
		adsr_timer += tPeriod;
		if (adsr_timer >= 10000)
		{ //every 10 millisecond
			adsr_timer = 0;

			switch (adsrPhase)
			{
			case ATTACK:
				if (ADSR_env[ATTACK])
				{
					vol = MAX_VOLUME * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[ATTACK];
					if (vol == MAX_VOLUME)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsrPhase = DECAY;
						adsr_time = 0;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = DECAY;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case DECAY:
				if (ADSR_env[DECAY])
				{
					sustain_lvl = _sustain_lvl;
					vol = MAX_VOLUME - (MAX_VOLUME - _sustain_lvl) * (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[DECAY];
					if (vol <= sustain_lvl)
					{
						adsr_time = 0;
						adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = SUSTAIN;
					sustain_lvl = MAX_VOLUME;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}
				break;

			case SUSTAIN:
				if (adsr_time > ADSR_env[SUSTAIN])
				{
					adsrPhase = RELEASE;
					adsr_time = 0;
				}

				break;
			case RELEASE:
				if (ADSR_env[RELEASE])
				{
					vol = sustain_lvl * (1 - (float)adsr_time / ADSR_env[RELEASE]);
					if (vol == 0)
					{ //Attack phase over
						adsr_time = 0;
						TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
						adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					}
				}
				else
				{
					adsrPhase = ATTACK;
					vol = 0;
					adsr_time = 0;
					TIMSK2 = (0 << TOIE2);
				}
				break;
			}
			adsr_time += 10;
		}
	}
}

chimes.h

/*This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 
To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en */

#ifndef CHIMES_H
#define CHIMES_H
#include "Arduino.h"

enum waveform
{
	SINE, //Sinus
	RECT, //Triangle
	TRI,  //Rectangle
	PAUSE //Internal, do not use
};
#define MAX_VOLUME 32

namespace Chimes
{
void init(uint8_t waveform = SINE, uint8_t duty_cycle = 50, uint8_t *envelope = NULL);
void play(uint16_t freq, uint16_t duration);

//Returns true while note is playing
boolean isPlaying();
} // namespace Chimes

#endif

getKeyboard.ino

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_A4, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_B4, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_C5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_D5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_E5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_F5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_G5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    // Waveform
    isPlaying();
    play(NOTE_A5, 1000);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  // Waveform
  isPlaying();
  play(0, 50);

}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();

  // Waveform
  init(

    // SINE, TRI and RECT
    SINE,
    // Duty cycle 0..100%, only matters for Triangle and Rectangle 
    50,
    // Envelope
  envelope);
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc...)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc...)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc...)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc...)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc...)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc...)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc...)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc...)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Simple Keyboard – Mk04

——

#donluc #sound #synthesizer #simplekeyboard #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Simple Keyboard

——

Simple Keyboard

——

Simple Keyboard

——

While frequencies are represented with numbers (Hz), pitch is represented with letters. For example, if you have ever heard an orchestra ‘tune’ at the beginning of a concert, a single player plays an “A” measured at 440Hz. With pitch, we only use the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. These pitches repeat every 8 notes, called an octave. In order to differentiate between which octaves we are referring to when talking about pitch, a number is added after the letter. Simply put in the 19th century and decided that was the case.

One very important aspect of all music theory is that octaves are specifically defined as ‘doubling’ or ‘halving’ a pitch’s frequency. For example, the frequencies 220 Hz, 440 Hz, and 880 Hz are all A’s, but exist in different octaves: A3, A4, and A5 respectively. In Western music theory, we have generally
agreed that within each octave there are 12 equal subdivisions or pitches. So how do we determine where these other notes are ‘tuned’ in relationship to that A440.

Simple Keyboard

This simple keyboard how to use the tone() command to generate different pitches depending on which button is pressed. Connect each button to digital pins 2 => 9, using to ground on each input line. Connect digital pins two wires to the board. The first one black long vertical rows on the side of the breadboard to provide access to ground. The two wire goes from digital pin to one leg of the button. When the button is open (unpressed) there is no connection between the two legs of the button, so the pin is connected to ground and we read a LOW. When the button is closed (pressed), it makes a connection between its two legs. Connect one terminal of your speaker to digital pin 10 through and its other terminal to ground.

The sketch uses an extra file, pitches.h. This file contains all the pitch values for typical notes. This note table on whose work the tone() command was based. You may find it useful for whenever you want to make musical notes. Player plays an NOTE_A4 measured at 440Hz, NOTE_B4 measured at 494Hz, NOTE_C5 measured at 523Hz, NOTE_D5 measured at 587Hz, NOTE_E5 measured at 659Hz, NOTE_F5 measured at 698Hz, NOTE_G5 measured at 784Hz and NOTE_A5 measured at 880Hz.

DL2010Mk03

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
8 x Tactile Button
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
8 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 10
KY2 – Digital 2
KY3 – Digital 3
KY4 – Digital 4
KY5 – Digital 5
KY6 – Digital 6
KY7 – Digital 7
KY8 – Digital 8
KY9 – Digital 9
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk03p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Simple Keyboard - Mk04
// 10-03
// DL2010Mk03p.ino 16-04
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 8 x Tactile Button
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 8 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 1 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 11 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code
#include "pitches.h"

// Mini Speaker
int SPK = 10;

// Simple Keyboard
// Minimum reading of the button that generates a note
const int iKeyboard2 = 2;
const int iKeyboard3 = 3;
const int iKeyboard4 = 4;
const int iKeyboard5 = 5;
const int iKeyboard6 = 6;
const int iKeyboard7 = 7;
const int iKeyboard8 = 8;
const int iKeyboard9 = 9; 
// Button is pressed
int aa = 1;
int bb = 1;
int cc = 1;
int dd = 1;
int ee = 1;
int ff = 1;
int gg = 1;
int hh = 1;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-04";

void loop() {

  // Keyboard
  isKeyboard();
  
}

getKeyboard.1no

// getKeyboard
// setupKeyboard
void setupKeyboard() {

  // Initialize the pushbutton pin as an input
  pinMode(iKeyboard2, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard3, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard4, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard5, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard6, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard7, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard8, INPUT_PULLUP);
  pinMode(iKeyboard9, INPUT_PULLUP);
 
}
// isKeyboard
void isKeyboard() {

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard2) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    aa = aa + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_A4, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    aa = aa - 1;
    
  }    

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard3) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    bb = bb + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_B4, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    bb = bb - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard4) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    cc = cc + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_C5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    cc = cc - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard5) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    dd = dd + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_D5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    dd = dd - 1;
    
  }
  
  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard6) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ee = ee + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_E5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ee = ee - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard7) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    ff = ff + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_F5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    ff = ff - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard8) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    gg = gg + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_G5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    gg = gg - 1;
    
  }

  // Read the state of the pushbutton value
  if ( digitalRead(iKeyboard9) == LOW ) {

    // Button is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
    hh = hh + 1;
    tone(SPK, NOTE_A5, 20);
    
  }
  else
  {
    
    hh = hh - 1;
    
  }

  noTone(SPK);

}

pitches.h

/*****************************************************************
 * Pitches NOTE_B0 <=> NOTE_DS8 - NOTE_A4 is "A" measured at 440Hz
 *****************************************************************/

#define NOTE_B0  31
#define NOTE_C1  33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1  37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1  41
#define NOTE_F1  44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1  49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1  55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1  62
#define NOTE_C2  65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2  73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2  82
#define NOTE_F2  87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2  98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2  110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2  123
#define NOTE_C3  131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3  147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3  165
#define NOTE_F3  175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3  196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3  220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3  247
#define NOTE_C4  262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4  294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4  330
#define NOTE_F4  349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4  392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4  440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4  494
#define NOTE_C5  523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5  587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5  659
#define NOTE_F5  698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5  784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5  880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5  988
#define NOTE_C6  1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6  1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6  1319
#define NOTE_F6  1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6  1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6  1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6  1976
#define NOTE_C7  2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7  2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7  2637
#define NOTE_F7  2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7  3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7  3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7  3951
#define NOTE_C8  4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8  4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup Keyboard
  setupKeyboard();
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Frequency and Pitch – Mk03

——

#donluc #sound #synthesizer #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

——

Frequency and Pitch

Frequency is how often something happens. Since sound is vibrations, we use frequency to describe how often something is vibrating. Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz), which is simply how often per second. So, something oscillating at 1 Hz is vibrating once every second. A complete vibration is called a cycle, measured at one full peak and trough of a wave. In the early days of electronic music, the terms cycles per second (cps) was used instead of Hz.

The above picture is a sine wave, the purest representation of a single frequency or vibration. The time it takes for the wave to complete one cycle is the wave’s frequency. More vibrations per second produce higher sounding frequencies and fewer vibrations per second produce lower sounding frequencies. Tuning instruments, science experiments, testing audio equipment, testing your hearing what’s the highest frequency you can hear? Humans perceive frequency of sound waves as pitch. Each musical note corresponds to a particular frequency which can be measured in hertz. An infant’s ear is able to perceive frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The average adult human can hear sounds between 20 Hz and 16,000 Hz.

Tone

The Arduino is a single-oscillator digital synthesizer. Generates a square wave tone() of the specified frequency on a pin. The pin can be connected to a other speaker. Only one tone can be generated at a time. If the tone is playing on the same pin, the call will set its frequency. the Arduino pin on which to generate the tone. The frequency of the tone in hertz. The duration of the tone in milliseconds. By passing voltage through a potentiometer and into an analog input on your board, it is possible to measure the amount of resistance produced by a potentiometer as an frequency.

DL2010Mk02

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
1 x 1K Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
2 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPK – Digital 6
CAP – Analog A0
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk02p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Frequency and Pitch - Mk03
// 10-02
// DL2010Mk02p.ino 16-03
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 1 x 1K Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 5 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 2 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 1 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code

// Mini Speaker
int SPK = 6;
// Frequency
int iCap = A0;
int iFreg = 0;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-03";

void loop() {

  // Frequency
  iFreg = analogRead(iCap);
  iFreg = map(iFreg, 0, 1023, 31, 4978);
  
  // Mini Speaker  
  tone(SPK, iFreg, 20);
    
  // Delay the actual frequency of updates reads for stability
  delay(1);
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Setup
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – Brownian Noise – Mk02

——

#donluc #sound #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Brownian Noise

——

Brownian Noise

——

Brownian Noise

——

Brownian Noise

White noise has equal intensity at equal frequencies. This sounds tinny and harsh to humans. The problem is due to the high frequencies. In order to produce a more pleasant sound, we need to attenuate those high frequencies. This is called a “low pass filter”. Brownian noise is noise with a power density which decreases 6 dB per octave with increasing frequency and, when heard, has a “damped” or “soft” quality compared to white and pink noise.

In science is the kind of signal noise produced by Brownian motion, hence its alternative name of random walk noise. The graphic representation of the sound signal mimics a Brownian pattern. The sound is a low roar resembling a waterfall or heavy rainfall.

Brown Noise Sleep Machine

Brown noise can be produced by integrating white noise. That is, whereas white noise can be produced by randomly choosing each sample independently, Brown noise can be produced by adding a random offset to each sample to obtain the next one. Note that while the first sample is random across the entire range that the sound sample can take on, the remaining offsets from there on are a tenth or thereabouts, leaving room for the signal to bounce around.

This is a pretty common diode. It acts as a flyback, a protective measure to against voltage spikes caused by inductive loads, in this case the speaker. It is basically the same setup, except that an electrolytic decoupling capacitors has been added. I found that 33uF to be suitable. If the output sounds too tinny, which I think is unlikely, then increase the capacitance. As you increase the capacitance, the output volume will go down. So you might try experimenting with a lower capacitance and potentiometer.

DL2010Mk01

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
1 x 1K Potentiometer
1 x Knob
1 x Diode Small Signal – 1N4148
1 x Electrolytic Decoupling Capacitors – 33uF/63V
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
9 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPT – Digital 6
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2010Mk01p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - Brownian Noise - Mk02
// 09-02
// DL2010Mk01p.ino 16-02
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 1 x 1K Potentiometer
// 1 x Knob
// 1 x Diode Small Signal - 1N4148
// 1 x Electrolytic Decoupling Capacitors - 33uF/63V
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 9 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 1 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code

// Mini Speaker
int SPK = 6;
long randNumber;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-02";

void loop() {

  // Mini Speaker
  randNumber = random();
  digitalWrite( SPK , randNumber ); 
    
  // Delay the actual frequency of updates
  delayMicroseconds (50);
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Connect a speaker between ground
  pinMode(SPK, OUTPUT);
  // Random Seed
  randomSeed(analogRead( SPK ));
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (PIC, Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
Web: http://www.jlpconsultants.com/
Web: http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/
Web: https://www.hackster.io/neosteam-labs
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/neosteam.labs.9/
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5eRjrGn1CqkkGfZy0jxEdA
Twitter: https://twitter.com/labs_steam
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/NeoSteamLabs/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/luc.paquin/

Don Luc

Project #16: Sound – White Noise – Mk01

——

#donluc #sound #programming #arduino #fritzing #electronics #microcontrollers #consultant #vlog

——

Sound - White Noise

——

Sound - White Noise

——

Sound - White Noise

——

White Noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density. In other words, the signal has equal power in any band of a given bandwidth when the bandwidth is measured in Hz. The term is used, with this or similar meanings, in many scientific and technical disciplines, including physics, acoustical engineering, telecommunications, and statistical forecasting. White noise refers to a statistical model for signals and signal sources, rather than to any specific signal.

White noise is commonly used in the production of electronic music, usually either directly or as an input for a filter to create other types of noise signal. A simple example of white noise is a nonexistent radio station (static). White noise is also used to obtain the impulse response of an electrical circuit, in particular of amplifiers and other audio equipment. Computing, white noise is used as the basis of some random number generators.

Sounds from all frequencies we can hear. Tends to sound high pitch and tinny. This tends to be the least pleasant noise.

Simple breakout board for the 3.5mm audio jack, TRS are abbreviations for Tip / Ring / Sleeve. A TRS is often though of as stereo, as the addition of the ring gives us two contacts allowing us a left and right audio channel.

DL2009Mk01

1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz
1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 5V

Arduino Pro Mini 328 – 5V/16MHz

SPT – Digital 6
SPR – Digital 7
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DL2009Mk01p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #16: Sound - White Noise - Mk01
// 09-01
// DL2009Mk01p.ino 16-01
// 1 x Arduino Pro Mini 328 - 5V/16MHz
// 1 x Audio Jack 3.5mm
// 1 x SparkFun Audio Jack Breakout
// 1 x Hamburger Mini Speaker
// 3 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 1 x Half-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout - 5V

// Include the Library Code

// Mini Speaker
int Tip = 6;
int Ring = 7;
long randNumber;

// Software Version Information
String sver = "16-01";

void loop() {

  // Mini Speaker
  randNumber = random();
  digitalWrite( Tip , randNumber ); 
  randNumber = random();
  digitalWrite( Ring , randNumber ); 
    
  // Delay the actual frequency of updates
  delayMicroseconds (50);
  
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // Connect a speaker between ground
  pinMode(Tip, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(Ring, OUTPUT);
  // Random Seed
  randomSeed(analogRead( Tip ));
  randomSeed(analogRead( Ring ));
  
}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

Follow Us

J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
http://www.donluc.com/DLHackster/LucPaquinCVEngMk2020a.pdf

Web: http://www.donluc.com/
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Don Luc

Project #15: Environment – PIR Motion Sensor – Mk12

——

#DonLuc #Environment #ESP32 #MQ #GPS #EMF #PIR #SparkFun #Adafruit #Pololu #Fritzing #Programming #Arduino #Consultant #Electronics #Microcontrollers #Vlog #Aphasia

——

Environment

——

Environment

——

Environment

——

PIR Motion Sensor (JST)

SparkFun Item: SEN-13285

This is a simple to use motion sensor. Power it up and wait 1-2 seconds for the sensor to get a snapshot of the still room. If anything moves after that period, the ‘alarm’ pin will go low. The alarm pin is an open collector meaning you will need a pull up resistor on the alarm pin. The open drain setup allows multiple motion sensors to be connected on a single input pin. If any of the motion sensors go off, the input pin will be pulled low.

We’ve finally updated the connector! Gone is the old “odd” connector, now you will find a common 3-pin JST! This makes the PIR Sensor much more accessible for whatever your project may need. Red = Power, White = Ground, and Black = Alarm.

DL2006Mk02

1 x SparkFun Thing Plus – ESP32 WROOM
1 x Adafruit SHARP Memory Display
1 x SparkFun Environmental Combo Breakout – CCS811/BME280
1 x Adafruit Adalogger FeatherWing – RTC + SD
1 x SparkFun GPS Receiver – GP-20U7
1 x CR1220 12mm Lithium Battery
1 x 32Gb microSD Card
1 x Mountable Slide Switch
1 x SparkFun Rotary Switch – 10 Position
1 x Black Knob
1 x Breadboard Solderable
4 x Pololu Carrier for MQ Gas Sensors
1 x SparkFun Hydrogen Gas Sensor – MQ-8
1 x Pololu Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor – MQ-9
1 x SparkFun Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor – MQ-7
1 x SparkFun Alcohol Gas Sensor – MQ-3
1 x Telescopic Antenna SMA – 300 MHz to 1.1 GHz (ANT700)
1 x SMA Connector
1 x Humidity and Temperature Sensor – RHT03
1 x PIR Motion Sensor (JST)
1 x Qwiic Cable – 100mm
1 x LED Green
11 x 1K Ohm
1 x 4.7K Ohm
2 x 10K Ohm
1 x 20k Ohm
1 x 200k Ohm
1 x 3.3m Ohm
12 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
13 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
20 x Wire Solid Core – 22 AWG
2 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
1 x DC Power Supply

SparkFun Thing Plus – ESP32 WROOM

LEG – Digital 21
SCK – Digital 13
MOS – Digital 12
SSD – Digital 27
SDA – Digital 23
SCL – Digital 22
SD1 – Digital 33
SC2 – Digital 5
MO2 – Digital 18
MI2 – Digital 19
SS1 – Digital 16
ROT – Analog A1
MH1 – Analog A0
MC1 – Analog A2
MC2 – Analog A3
MA1 – Analog A4
EMF – Analog A5
GPS – Digital 14
RHT – Digital 15
PIR – Digital 17
VIN – +3.3V
GND – GND

DL2006Mk02p.ino

// ***** Don Luc Electronics © *****
// Software Version Information
// Project #15: Environment - PIR Motion Sensor (JST) - Mk12
// 06-02
// DL2006Mk02p.ino 15-12
// EEPROM with Unique ID
// 1 x SparkFun Thing Plus - ESP32 WROOM
// 1 x Adafruit SHARP Memory Display
// 1 x SparkFun Environmental Combo Breakout - CCS811/BME280
// 1 x Adafruit Adalogger FeatherWing - RTC + SD
// 1 x SparkFun GPS Receiver - GP-20U7
// 1 x CR1220 12mm Lithium Battery
// 1 x 32Gb microSD Card
// 1 x Mountable Slide Switch
// 1 x SparkFun Rotary Switch - 10 Position
// 1 x Black Knob
// 1 x Breadboard Solderable
// 4 x Pololu Carrier for MQ Gas Sensors
// 1 x SparkFun Hydrogen Gas Sensor - MQ-8
// 1 x Pololu Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor - MQ-9
// 1 x SparkFun Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor - MQ-7
// 1 x SparkFun Alcohol Gas Sensor - MQ-3
// 1 x Telescopic Antenna SMA - 300 MHz to 1.1 GHz (ANT700)
// 1 x SMA Connector
// 1 x Humidity and Temperature Sensor - RHT03
// 1 x PIR Motion Sensor (JST)
// 1 x Qwiic Cable - 100mm
// 1 x LED Green
// 11 x 1K Ohm
// 1 x 4.7K Ohm
// 2 x 10K Ohm
// 1 x 20k Ohm
// 1 x 200k Ohm
// 1 x 3.3m Ohm
// 12 x Jumper Wires 3in M/M
// 13 x Jumper Wires 6in M/M
// 20 x Wire Solid Core - 22 AWG
// 2 x Full-Size Breadboard
// 1 x SparkFun Cerberus USB Cable
// 1 x DC Power Supply

// Include the Library Code
// EEPROM Library to Read and Write EEPROM with Unique ID for Unit
#include "EEPROM.h"
// Wire
#include <Wire.h>
// SHARP Memory Display
#include <Adafruit_SharpMem.h>
#include <Adafruit_GFX.h>
// SparkFun CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
#include <SparkFunCCS811.h>
// SparkFun BME280 - Humidity, Temperature, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
#include <SparkFunBME280.h>
// Date and Time
#include "RTClib.h"
// SD Card
#include "FS.h"
#include "SD.h"
#include "SPI.h"
// GPS Receiver
#include <TinyGPS++.h>
// Hardware Serial
#include <HardwareSerial.h>
// RHT Humidity and Temperature Sensor
#include <SparkFun_RHT03.h>

// LED Green
int iLEDGreen = 21;

// SHARP Memory Display
// any pins can be used
#define SHARP_SCK  13
#define SHARP_MOSI 12
#define SHARP_SS   27
// Set the size of the display here - 144x168
Adafruit_SharpMem display(SHARP_SCK, SHARP_MOSI, SHARP_SS, 144, 168);
// The currently-available SHARP Memory Display (144x168 pixels)
// requires > 4K of microcontroller RAM; it WILL NOT WORK on Arduino Uno
// or other <4K "classic" devices!
#define BLACK 0
#define WHITE 1
// 1/2 of lesser of display width or height
int minorHalfSize; 

// SparkFun CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
// Default I2C Address
#define CCS811_ADDR 0x5B 
CCS811 myCCS811(CCS811_ADDR);
float CCS811CO2 = 0;
float CCS811TVOC = 0;

// SparkFun BME280 - Humidity, Temperature, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
BME280 myBME280;
float BMEtempC = 0;
float BMEhumid = 0;
float BMEaltitudeM = 0;
float BMEpressure = 0;

// Date and Time
// PCF8523 Precision RTC 
RTC_PCF8523 rtc;
String dateRTC = "";
String timeRTC = "";

// microSD Card
const int chipSelect = 33;
String zzzzzz = "";

// Mountable Slide Switch
int iSS1 = 16;
// State
int iSS1State = 0;

// ESP32 HardwareSerial
HardwareSerial tGPS(2);

// GPS Receiver
#define gpsRXPIN 14
// This one is unused and doesnt have a conection
#define gpsTXPIN 32
// The TinyGPS++ object
TinyGPSPlus gps;
float TargetLat;
float TargetLon;
int GPSStatus = 0;

// Rotary Switch - 10 Position
// Number 1 => 10
int iRotNum = A0;
// iRotVal - Value 
int iRotVal = 0;
// Number
int z = 0;
int x = 0;

// Gas Sensors MQ
// Hydrogen Gas Sensor - MQ-8
int iMQ8 = A1;
int iMQ8Raw = 0;
int iMQ8ppm = 0;
// Two points are taken from the curve in datasheet
// With these two points, a line is formed which is "approximately equivalent" to the original curve
float H2Curve[3] = {2.3, 0.93,-1.44};
// Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor - MQ-9
int iMQ9 = A2;
int iMQ9Raw = 0;
int iMQ9ppm = 0;
// Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor - MQ-7
int iMQ7 = A3;
int iMQ7Raw = 0;
int iMQ7ppm = 0;
// Alcohol Gas Sensor - MQ-3
int iMQ3 = A4;
int iMQ3Raw = 0;
int iMQ3ppm = 0;

// EMF Meter (Single Axis)
int iEMF = A5;
// Raise this number to increase data smoothing
#define NUMREADINGS 15
// Raise this number to decrease sensitivity (up to 1023 max)
int senseLimit = 15;
// EMF Value
int valEMF = 0;
// Readings from the analog input
int readings[ NUMREADINGS ];
// Index of the current reading
int indexEMF = 0;
// Running total
int totalEMF = 0;
// Final average of the probe reading
int averageEMF = 0;
int iEMFDis = 0;
int iEMFRect = 0;

// RHT Humidity and Temperature Sensor
// RHT03 data pin Digital 15
const int RHT03_DATA_PIN = 15;
// This creates a RTH03 object, which we'll use to interact with the sensor
RHT03 rht;
float latestHumidity;
float latestTempC;
float latestTempF;

// PIR Motion
// Motion detector
const int iMotion = 17;
// Proximity
int proximity = LOW;
String Det = "";

// Software Version Information
String sver = "15-12";
// EEPROM Unique ID Information
#define EEPROM_SIZE 64
String uid = "";

void loop() {

  // Receives NEMA data from GPS receiver
  isGPS();
  
  // Date and Time 
  isRTC();
  
  // SparkFun BME280 - Humidity, Temperature, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
  isBME280();

  // SparkFun CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
  isCCS811();

  // Gas Sensors MQ
  isGasSensor();

  // EMF Meter (Single Axis)
  isEMF();

  // RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
  isRHT03();

  // isPIR Motion
  isPIR();

  // Rotary Switch
  isRot();

  // Slide Switch
  // Read the state of the iSS1 value
  iSS1State = digitalRead(iSS1);
  
  // If it is the Slide Switch State is HIGH
  if (iSS1State == HIGH) {

    // iLEDGreen
    digitalWrite(iLEDGreen,  HIGH );
    
    // microSD Card
    isSD();

  } else {

    // iLEDGreen
    digitalWrite(iLEDGreen,  LOW );
  
  }

  delay( 1000 );
  
}

getBME280.ino

// SparkFun BME280 - Humidity, Temperature, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
// isBME280 - Temperature, Humidity, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
void isBME280(){

  // Temperature Celsius
  BMEtempC = myBME280.readTempC();
  // Humidity
  BMEhumid = myBME280.readFloatHumidity();
  // Altitude Meters
  BMEaltitudeM = (myBME280.readFloatAltitudeMeters(), 2);
  // Barometric Pressure
  BMEpressure = myBME280.readFloatPressure();
  
}

getCCS811.ino

// CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
// isCCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
void isCCS811(){

  // This sends the temperature & humidity data to the CCS811
  myCCS811.setEnvironmentalData(BMEhumid, BMEtempC);

  // Calling this function updates the global tVOC and eCO2 variables
  myCCS811.readAlgorithmResults();

  // eCO2 Concentration
  CCS811CO2 = myCCS811.getCO2();
  
  // tVOC Concentration
  CCS811TVOC = myCCS811.getTVOC();
  
}

getDisplay.ino

// Display
// SHARP Memory Display - UID
void isDisplayUID() {

    // Text Display 
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(3);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Don Luc Electronics
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "Don Luc" );
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setCursor(0,40);
    display.println( "Electronics" );
    // Version
    display.setTextSize(3);
    display.setCursor(0,70);
    display.println( "Version" );
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setCursor(0,100);   
    display.println( sver );
    // EEPROM Unique ID
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.setCursor(0,130);
    display.println( "EEPROM Unique ID" );
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setCursor(0,145);
    display.println( uid );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );
    
}
// Display Environmental
void isDisplayEnvironmental(){

    // Text Display Environmental
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Temperature Celsius
    display.setCursor(0,0);
    display.println( "Temperature Celsius" );
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.print( BMEtempC );
    display.println( " C" );
    // Humidity
    display.setCursor(0,20);
    display.println( "Humidity" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( BMEhumid );
    display.println( "%" );
    // Altitude Meters
    display.setCursor(0,40);
    display.println( "Altitude Meters" );
    display.setCursor(0,50);
    display.print( BMEaltitudeM );
    display.println( " m" );
    // Pressure
    display.setCursor(0,60);    
    display.println( "Barometric Pressure" );
    display.setCursor(0,70);
    display.print( BMEpressure );
    display.println( " Pa" );
    // eCO2 Concentration
    display.setCursor(0,80);
    display.println( "eCO2 Concentration" );
    display.setCursor(0,90);
    display.print( CCS811CO2 );
    display.println( " ppm" );
    // tVOC Concentration
    display.setCursor(0,100);
    display.println( "tVOC Concentration" );
    display.setCursor(0,110);
    display.print( CCS811TVOC );
    display.println( " ppb" );
    // Date
    display.setCursor(0,120);
    display.println( dateRTC );
    // Time
    display.setCursor(0,130);
    display.println( timeRTC );
    // GPS Status
    display.setCursor(0,140);
    display.println( GPSStatus );
    // Target Latitude
    display.setCursor(0,150);
    display.println( TargetLat );
    // Target Longitude
    display.setCursor(0,160);
    display.println( TargetLon );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display Date
void isDisplayDate() {

    // Text Display Date
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Date
    display.setCursor(0,5);
    display.println( dateRTC );
    // Time
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.println( timeRTC );
    // GPS Status
    display.setCursor(0,60);
    display.print( "GPS: " );
    display.println( GPSStatus );
    // Target Latitude
    display.setCursor(0,80);
    display.println( "Latitude" );
    display.setCursor(0,100);
    display.println( TargetLat );
    // Target Longitude
    display.setCursor(0,120);
    display.println( "Longitude" );
    display.setCursor(0,140);
    display.println( TargetLon );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display BME280
void isDisplayBME280() {

     // Text Display BME280
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Temperature Celsius
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "Temperature" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( BMEtempC );
    display.println( " C" );
    // Humidity
    display.setCursor(0,50);
    display.println( "Humidity" );
    display.setCursor(0,70);
    display.print( BMEhumid );
    display.println( "%" );
    // Altitude Meters
    display.setCursor(0,90);
    display.println( "Altitude M" );
    display.setCursor(0,110);
    display.print( BMEaltitudeM );
    display.println( " m" );
    // Pressure
    display.setCursor(0,130);    
    display.println( "Barometric" );
    display.setCursor(0,150);
    display.print( BMEpressure );
    display.println( "Pa" );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
void isDisplayCCS811() {

    // Text Display CCS811
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // eCO2 Concentration
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "eCO2" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( CCS811CO2 );
    display.println( " ppm" );
    // tVOC Concentration
    display.setCursor(0,60);
    display.println( "tVOC" );
    display.setCursor(0,80);
    display.print( CCS811TVOC );
    display.println( " ppb" );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display Gas Sensors MQ
void isDisplayMQ() {

    // Text Display MQ
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Gas Sensors MQ
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "Gas H2 MQ8" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( iMQ8ppm );
    display.println( " ppm" );
    display.setCursor(0,50);
    display.println( "Gas CO MQ9" );
    display.setCursor(0,70);
    display.print( iMQ9ppm );
    display.println( " ppm" );
    display.setCursor(0,90);
    display.println( "Gas CO MQ7" );
    display.setCursor(0,110);
    display.print( iMQ7ppm );
    display.println( " ppm" );
    display.setCursor(0,130);
    display.println( "BAC MQ3" );
    display.setCursor(0,150);
    display.print( iMQ3ppm );
    display.println( "%" );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// EMF Meter (Single Axis)
void isDisplayEMF() {

    // Text Display EMF Meter
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // EMF Meter
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "EMF Meter" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( "EMF: " );
    display.println( averageEMF );
    display.setCursor(0,50);
    display.println( iEMFDis );
    display.setCursor(0,70);
    display.setTextSize(1);
    display.println( "0  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  10" );
    display.setCursor(0,90);
    display.drawRect(0, 90, iEMFRect , display.height(), BLACK);
    display.fillRect(0, 90, iEMFRect , display.height(), BLACK);
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display PIR Motion
void isDisplayPIR() {

    // Text Display PIR
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // PIR Motion
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "PIR Motion" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.println( Det );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display RHT
void isDisplayRHT() {

    // Text Display RHT
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(2);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Temperature
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.println( "Temp C" );
    display.setCursor(0,30);
    display.print( latestTempC );
    display.println( "C" );
    // Temp F
    display.setCursor(0,60);
    display.println( "Temp F" );
    display.setCursor(0,80);
    display.print( latestTempF );
    display.println( "F" );
    // Humidity
    display.setCursor(0,110);
    display.println( "Humidity" );
    display.setCursor(0,130);
    display.print( latestHumidity );
    display.println( " %" );    
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}
// Display Z
void isDisplayZ() {

    // Text Display Z
    // Clear Display
    display.clearDisplay();
    display.setRotation(4);
    display.setTextSize(3);
    display.setTextColor(BLACK);
    // Z
    display.setCursor(0,10);
    display.print( "Z: " );
    display.println( z );
    // Refresh
    display.refresh();
    delay( 100 );

}

getEEPROM.ino

// EEPROM
// isUID EEPROM Unique ID
void isUID()
{
  
  // Is Unit ID
  uid = "";
  for (int x = 0; x < 5; x++)
  {
    uid = uid + char(EEPROM.read(x));
  }
  
}

getEMF.ino

// EMF Meter (Single Axis)
// Setup EMF Meter
void isSetupEMF() {

  // EMF Meter (Single Axis)
  pinMode( iEMF, OUTPUT );
  for (int i = 0; i < NUMREADINGS; i++){
    readings[ i ] = 0;     // Initialize all the readings to 0
  }
  
}
// EMF Meter
void isEMF() {

  // Probe EMF Meter
  // Take a reading from the probe
  valEMF = analogRead( iEMF );

  // If the reading isn't zero, proceed
  if( valEMF >= 1 ){

    // Turn any reading higher than the senseLimit value into the senseLimit value
    valEMF = constrain( valEMF, 1, senseLimit );
    // Remap the constrained value within a 1 to 1023 range
    valEMF = map( valEMF, 1, senseLimit, 1, 1023 );
    
    // Subtract the last reading
    totalEMF -= readings[ indexEMF ];
    // Read from the sensor
    readings[ indexEMF ] = valEMF;
    // Add the reading to the total
    totalEMF += readings[ indexEMF ];
    // Advance to the next index
    indexEMF = ( indexEMF + 1 );
    
    // If we're at the end of the array...
    if ( indexEMF >= NUMREADINGS ) {

      // Wrap around to the beginning
      indexEMF = 0;
      
    }  

    // Calculate the average
    averageEMF = totalEMF / NUMREADINGS;

    iEMFDis = averageEMF;
    iEMFRect = map( averageEMF, 1, 1023, 1, 144 );

  }
  else
  {

    averageEMF = 0;
    
  }
  
}

getGPS.ino

// GPS Receiver
// Setup GPS
void setupGPS() {

  // Setup GPS
  tGPS.begin(  9600 , SERIAL_8N1, gpsRXPIN, gpsTXPIN );
  
}
// isGPS
void isGPS(){

  // Receives NEMA data from GPS receiver
  // This sketch displays information every time a new sentence is correctly encoded.
  while ( tGPS.available() > 0)
    if (gps.encode( tGPS.read() ))
    {
     displayInfo();
    }
  
  if (millis() > 5000 && gps.charsProcessed() < 10)
  {
    while(true);
  }

}
// GPS Vector Pointer Target
void displayInfo(){

  // Location
  if (gps.location.isValid())
  {
    
    TargetLat = gps.location.lat();
    TargetLon = gps.location.lng();
    GPSStatus = 2;
    
  }
  else
  {

    GPSStatus = 0;
    
  }

}

getGasSensorMQ.ino

// Gas Sensors MQ
// Gas Sensor
void isGasSensor() {

  // Read in analog value from each gas sensors
  
  // Hydrogen Gas Sensor - MQ-8
  iMQ8Raw = analogRead( iMQ8 );

  // Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor - MQ-9
  iMQ9Raw = analogRead( iMQ9 );  

  // Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor - MQ-7
  iMQ7Raw = analogRead( iMQ7 );

  // Alcohol Gas Sensor - MQ-3
  iMQ3Raw = analogRead( iMQ3 );
  
  // Caclulate the PPM of each gas sensors

  // Hydrogen Gas Sensor - MQ-8
  iMQ8ppm = isMQ8( iMQ8Raw ); 

  // Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor - MQ-9
  iMQ9ppm = isMQ9( iMQ9Raw ); 

  // Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor - MQ-7
  iMQ7ppm = isMQ7( iMQ7Raw ); 

  // Alcohol Gas Sensor - MQ-3
  iMQ3ppm = isMQ3( iMQ3Raw ); 
  
}
// Hydrogen Gas Sensor - MQ-8 - PPM
int isMQ8(double rawValue) {

  // RvRo
  double RvRo = rawValue * (3.3 / 1023);

  return (pow(4.7,( ((log(RvRo)-H2Curve[1])/H2Curve[2]) + H2Curve[0])));
  
}
// Carbon Monoxide & Flammable Gas Sensor - MQ-9
int isMQ9(double rawValue) {

  double RvRo = rawValue * 3.3 / 4095;

  double ppm = 3.027*exp(1.0698*( RvRo ));
  return ppm;
  
}
// Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor - MQ-7
int isMQ7(double rawValue) {

  double RvRo = rawValue * 3.3 / 4095;

  double ppm = 3.027*exp(1.0698*( RvRo ));
  return ppm;
  
}
// Alcohol Gas Sensor - MQ-3
int isMQ3(double rawValue) {

  double RvRo = rawValue * 3.3 / 4095;

  double bac = RvRo * 0.21;
  return bac;
  
}

getPIR.ino

// PIR Motion
// Setup PIR
void setupPIR() {

  // Setup PIR Montion
  pinMode(iMotion, INPUT_PULLUP);
  
}
// isPIR Motion
void isPIR() {

  // Proximity
  proximity = digitalRead(iMotion);
  if (proximity == LOW) 
  {

    // PIR Motion Sensor's LOW, Motion is detected
    Det = "Motion Yes";
    
  }
  else
  {

    // PIR Motion Sensor's HIGH
    Det = "No";
    
  }
  
}

getRHT.ino

// RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
// setup RTH03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
void setupRTH03() {

  // RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
  // Call rht.begin() to initialize the sensor and our data pin
  rht.begin(RHT03_DATA_PIN);
  
}
// RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
void isRHT03(){

  // Call rht.update() to get new humidity and temperature values from the sensor.
  int updateRet = rht.update();

  // The humidity(), tempC(), and tempF() functions can be called -- after 
  // a successful update() -- to get the last humidity and temperature value 
  latestHumidity = rht.humidity();
  latestTempC = rht.tempC();
  latestTempF = rht.tempF();
  
}

getRTC.ino

// Date & Time
// PCF8523 Precision RTC 
void setupRTC() {

  // Date & Time
  // pcf8523 Precision RTC   
  if (! rtc.begin()) {
    while (1);
  }  
  
  if (! rtc.initialized()) {
    // Following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled
    rtc.adjust(DateTime(F(__DATE__), F(__TIME__)));
    // This line sets the RTC with an explicit date & time, for example to set
    // January 21, 2014 at 3am you would call:
    // rtc.adjust(DateTime(2018, 9, 29, 12, 17, 0));
  }
  
}
// Date and Time RTC
void isRTC () {

  // Date and Time
  dateRTC = "";
  timeRTC = "";
  DateTime now = rtc.now();
  
  // Date
  dateRTC = now.year(), DEC; 
  dateRTC = dateRTC + "/";
  dateRTC = dateRTC + now.month(), DEC;
  dateRTC = dateRTC + "/";
  dateRTC = dateRTC + now.day(), DEC;
  
  // Time
  timeRTC = now.hour(), DEC;
  timeRTC = timeRTC + ":";
  timeRTC = timeRTC + now.minute(), DEC;
  timeRTC = timeRTC + ":";
  timeRTC = timeRTC + now.second(), DEC;
  
}

getRot.ino

// Rotary Switch
// isRot - iRotVal - Value
void isRot() {

  // Rotary Switch
  z = analogRead( iRotNum );
  x = map(z, 0, 4095, 0, 9);
  iRotVal = map(z, 0, 4095, 0, 10);

  // Range Value
  switch ( iRotVal ) {
    case 0:

      // Display Environmental
      isDisplayEnvironmental();
      
      break;
    case 1:

      // Display Date
      isDisplayDate();
      
      break;
    case 2:

      // Display BME280
      isDisplayBME280();
      
      break;  
    case 3:

      // RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
      isDisplayRHT();
      
      break;
    case 4:

      // Display CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
      isDisplayCCS811();
      
      break;
    case 5:

      // Display Gas Sensors MQ
      isDisplayMQ();
      
      break;       
    case 6:

      // EMF Meter (Single Axis)
      isDisplayEMF();
      
      break; 
    case 7:
         
      // Display PIR Motion
      isDisplayPIR();
      
      break; 
    case 8:

      // Display UID
      isDisplayUID();
      
      break;
    case 9:

      // Z
      isDisplayZ();
      
      break;
  }

}

getSD.ino

// microSD Card
// microSD Setup
void setupSD() {

    // microSD Card
    pinMode( chipSelect , OUTPUT );
    if(!SD.begin( chipSelect )){
        ;  
        return;
    }
    
    uint8_t cardType = SD.cardType();

    if(cardType == CARD_NONE){
        ; 
        return;
    }

    //Serial.print("SD Card Type: ");
    if(cardType == CARD_MMC){
        ; 
    } else if(cardType == CARD_SD){
        ; 
    } else if(cardType == CARD_SDHC){
        ; 
    } else {
        ; 
    } 

    uint64_t cardSize = SD.cardSize() / (1024 * 1024);
  
}
// microSD Card
void isSD() {

  zzzzzz = "";

  // EEPROM Unique ID|Version|Date|Time|GPS Status|Target Latitude|Target Longitude|Temperature Celsius|Humidity|Altitude Meters|Barometric Pressure|Latest Temp C|Latest Temp F|Latest Humidity|eCO2 Concentration|tVOC Concentration|H2 Gas Sensor MQ-8|CO Gas Sensor MQ-9|CO Gas Sensor MQ-7|Alcohol Gas Sensor MQ-3|EMF Meter (Single Axis)|PIR Motion
  zzzzzz = uid + "|" + sver + "|" + dateRTC + "|" + timeRTC + "|" + GPSStatus + "|" + TargetLat + "|" + TargetLon + "|" + BMEtempC + "|" + BMEhumid + "|" + BMEaltitudeM + "|" + BMEpressure + "|" + latestTempC + "|" + latestTempF + "|" + latestHumidity + "|" + CCS811CO2 + "|" + CCS811TVOC + "|" + iMQ8ppm + "|" + iMQ9ppm + "|" + iMQ7ppm + "|" + iMQ9ppm + "|" + iMQ3ppm + "|" + averageEMF + "|" + Det + "|\r";

  char msg[zzzzzz.length() + 1];

  zzzzzz.toCharArray(msg, zzzzzz.length() + 1);

  appendFile(SD, "/espdata.txt", msg );
  
}
// List Dir
void listDir(fs::FS &fs, const char * dirname, uint8_t levels){
    
    dirname;
    
    File root = fs.open(dirname);
    
    if(!root){
        return;
    }
    
    if(!root.isDirectory()){
        return;
    }

    File file = root.openNextFile();
    
    while(file){
        if(file.isDirectory()){
            file.name();
            if(levels){
                listDir(fs, file.name(), levels -1);
            }
        } else {
            file.name();
            file.size();
        }
        file = root.openNextFile();
    }
    
}
// Write File
void writeFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path, const char * message){
    
    path;
    
    File file = fs.open(path, FILE_WRITE);
    
    if(!file){
        return;
    }
    
    if(file.print(message)){
        ;  
    } else {
        ;  
    }
    
    file.close();
    
}
// Append File
void appendFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path, const char * message){
    
    path;
    
    File file = fs.open(path, FILE_APPEND);
    
    if(!file){
        return;
    }
    
    if(file.print(message)){
        ;  
    } else {
        ;  
    }
    
    file.close();
    
}

setup.ino

// Setup
void setup() {

  // EEPROM Size
  EEPROM.begin(EEPROM_SIZE);
  
  // EEPROM Unique ID
  isUID();
  
  // GPS Receiver
  // Setup GPS
  setupGPS();
  
  // SHARP Display Start & Clear the Display
  display.begin();
  // Clear Display
  display.clearDisplay();
  
  // Display UID
  isDisplayUID();

  // Wire - Inialize I2C Hardware
  Wire.begin();

  // SparkFun BME280 - Humidity, Temperature, Altitude and Barometric Pressure
  myBME280.begin();
  
  // CCS811 - eCO2 & tVOC
  myCCS811.begin();

  // Initialize the LED Green
  pinMode(iLEDGreen, OUTPUT);

  // Date & Time RTC
  // PCF8523 Precision RTC 
  setupRTC();
  
  // Date & Time
  isRTC();
  
  // microSD Card
  setupSD();

  // Slide Switch
  pinMode(iSS1, INPUT);

  // EMF Meter (Single Axis) - Setup
  isSetupEMF();

  // RHT03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
  // setup RTH03 Humidity and Temperature Sensor
  setupRTH03();

  // PIR Motion
  // Setup PIR
  setupPIR();

  delay( 5000 );

}

Technology Experience

  • Single-Board Microcontrollers (Arduino, Raspberry Pi,Espressif, etc…)
  • Robotics
  • Research & Development (R & D)
  • Desktop Applications (Windows, OSX, Linux, Multi-OS, Multi-Tier, etc…)
  • Mobile Applications (Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, etc…)
  • Web Applications (LAMP, Scripting, Java, ASP, ASP.NET, RoR, Wakanda, etc…)
  • Social Media Programming & Integration (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, etc…)
  • Content Management Systems (WordPress, Drupal, Joomla, Moodle, etc…)
  • Bulletin Boards (phpBB, SMF, Vanilla, jobberBase, etc…)
  • eCommerce (WooCommerce, OSCommerce, ZenCart, PayPal Shopping Cart, etc…)

Instructor

  • Arduino
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Espressif
  • Robotics
  • DOS, Windows, OSX, Linux, iOS, Android, Multi-OS
  • Linux-Apache-PHP-MySQL

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J. Luc Paquin – Curriculum Vitae
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