Project #10: ESP8266 Thing – Blink – Mk02

Soldering

Plated through-hole soldering (PTH), flux-core solder alloys commonly used for electrical soldering are 60/40 Sn-Pb used principally in electrical/electronic work and TENMA soldering station temperature controlled digital.

Hardware Assembly

We’re getting ahead of ourselves. To connect the FTDI programmer to your Thing you’ll need to solder something to the Thing. What, exactly, you solder to the board depends both on how you’ll use it in your project, and how you’ll interface it with the programmer. When it comes to selecting a header (or wire) to solder, there are a variety of options. We’ve tried a lot of them with the Thing:

Or you can mix and match headers to best fit your needs. Right-angle male headers may help to interface between the FTDI and the Thing. Straight male headers are a good choice for low-profile connections. Straight female headers may help with connecting to I2C sensors. And, of course, wire can be soldered to any of the pins that have a long way to connect to something.

10 pin – Break Away Headers – Straight
4 pin – Break Away Headers – Straight
6 pin – Break Away Male Headers – Right Angle

Once you’ve soldered up at least the programming port, you’re ready to load some code onto the Thing.

Programming the Thing

The ESP8266 has a built-in serial bootloader, which allows for easy programming and re-programming. You don’t need a specialized, expensive programmer – just a simple, USB-to-Serial converter. The FTDI Basic’s 6-pin header matches up exactly to the Thing’s 6-pin serial port header. To set up for programming, simply connect the FTDI directly to this port – take care to match up the DTR and GND pins.

Blink

Let’s blink some LEDs and IoT (Internet our Thing). To verify that everything works Blink: toggle pin 5, which is attached to the onboard LED Green, toggle pin 4 which is LED Green.

DonLuc1901Mk01

1 x SparkFun ESP8266 Thing
1 x SparkFun FTDI Basic Breakout – 3.3V
1 x LED Green
1 x 100 Ohm
4 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to Mini-B

SparkFun ESP8266 Thing

LG1 – Digital 5
LG2 – Digital 4
GND – GND
VIN – +3.3V

DonLuc1901Mk01p.ino


setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – MCP4131 – Mk10

Microchip Technology Inc – MCP4131

Features:

-7-bit: 128 Resistors with 129 Taps to VSS and VDD
-SPI compatible interface
-Automatic Recall of Potentiometer Wiper Settings Resistance Values: 5k Ohm, 10k Ohm, 50k Ohm, 100k Ohm
-Absolute (Rheostat): <100 ppm (typ.) -Ratiometric (Potentiometer): <10 ppm (typ.) Device Overview – Summary

The MCP41/423X devices are volatile, 7-bit (129 wiper steps) digital potentiometers with an SPI compatible interface. The MCP41/42XX family is available with end-to-end resistor values of 5K Ohm, 10K Ohm, 50k Ohm and 100K Ohm. These devices offer a variety of configurations simplifying design while minimizing cost, package size and pin count.

Additional Features

-7-bit: 128 Resistors with 129 Taps to VSS and VDD
-SPI compatible interface
-Automatic Recall of Potentiometer Wiper Settings Resistance Values: 5k Ohm, 10k Ohm, 50k Ohm, 100k Ohm
-Low Tempco: Absolute (Rheostat): <100 ppm (typ.) -Ratiometric (Potentiometer): <10 ppm (typ.) -Low Wiper Resistance: 100 Ohm (typ.) -Low-Power Operation: 1µA Max Static Current -Wide Operating Voltage: 1.8V to 5.5V -Extended Temperature Range: -40°C to +125°C MCP4131 – Digital Potentiometer – 10K

Potentiometers are incredibly useful, whether you’re controlling the volume on your stereo or the ‘mood lighting’ in your room. The problem with traditional potentiometers is the fact that your microcontroller doesn’t have an easy way to interface with them. Digital potentiometers solve that problem by allowing you to control a voltage splitter with digital signals.

Wire it up just like a potentiometer and use serial signals to ‘turn the knob’. Another handy feature of digital potentiometers is that because they aren’t controlled mechanically, they don’t have a pre-determined sweep profile. In other words, depending on the way you write your code the potentiometer can ‘sweep’ in a linear fashion, a logarithmic fashion, or according to any other profile you like. Digital potentiometers can also be used in conjunction with rotary encoders to consolidate large banks of potentiometers into one ‘smart’ rotary control.

Digital Potentiometer MCP41131 and Arduino

We know the analog potentiometer, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers many application such like:

1- Volume controls on audio equipment
2- Control the amplifier gain and offset
3- Transducer displacement transducers

Many other application, but did you want to control the resistance value by Arduino instead of using analog one. Analog potentiometers have some problem with Arduino doesn’t have an easy way to interface with them. The digital potentiometer, give you an ability to adjust the resistance, allowing you to control a voltage splitter with digital signals. This IC using SPI Protocol to communicate with Arduino.

DonLuc1808Mk03

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x MCP4131
1 x LED Green
1 x 270 Ohm Resistance
1 x NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED
1 x 100K Potentiometer
1 x Black Knob
7 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
12 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Full-Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

MC1 – Digital 13
MC2 – Digital 11
MC3 – Digital 10
LR1 – Digital 3
POT – Analog 1
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1808Mk03p.ino

getMCP4131.ino

neopix.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Bi-Color LED – Mk09

Bi-Color LED

Bi-color LEDs contain two different LED emitters in one case. There are two types of these. One type consists of two dies connected to the same two leads antiparallel to each other. Current flow in one direction emits one color, and current in the opposite direction emits the other color. The other type consists of two dies with separate leads for both dies and another lead for common anode or cathode so that they can be controlled independently. The most common bi-color combination is red/traditional green, however, other available combinations include amber/traditional green, red/pure green, red/blue, and blue/pure green.

Super Bright BiPolar LEDs

Package of 12 super bright Red/Green jumbo T1 3/4 5mm LEDs. These have a diffused frosted lens and 3 long leads. Prime 100% perfect and bright. CODE 7: 100% Prime Parts. Stock # GP55

DonLuc1808Mk02

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
3 x Bi-Color LED GP55
3 x 270 Ohm Resistance
3 x 330 Ohm Resistance
3 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
7 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

LG3 – Digital 5
LR3 – Digital 4
LG2 – Digital 3
LR2 – Digital 2
LG1 – Digital 1
LR1 – Digital 0
GND – GND

DonLuc1808Mk02p.ino

getBiColor.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Rotary Switch – Mk08

Rotary Switch – 10 Position

This is a single pole, 10 position rotary switch able to select up to 10 different states in a durable package. Unlike our other rotary switch, this model is much more robust and capable of handling larger currents and voltages.

With a max voltage rating of 125VAC at 0.3A and a dielectric strength of 250VAC for 1 minute this is a serious little rotary switch capable of working with some of your bigger projects. Though this switch requires you to use 11 pins and is not breadboard friendly we do offer a breakout board (found in the Recommended Products section below) to provide easier access to its capabilities.

1 x Rotary Switch – 10 Position
1 x Hex Nut
2 x Washer

Rating: 0.3A/125VAC
Contact Resistance: 50M Ohm max
Insulation Resistance: 100M Ohm @ 500VDC min
Dielectric Strength: 250VAC for 1 minute
Rotation torque: 1.0+0.5KG/cm
Shaft: 3/8″

Rotary Switch Breakout

This is the SparkFun Rotary Switch Breakout, a very simple board designed to easily provide you access to each pin on our 10-position rotary switches. This breakout allows you to easily add a rotary switch to your next project without having to worry about attaching its unique footprint to a custom board or solderless breadboard. All you need to do is solder the 10-position rotary switch into the breakout (using the silkscreen on the board as a guide) and each pin will become available for breadboard or hookup wire compatibility.

Each one of these boards breaks out the common ( C ), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 positions on the board into 0.1″ spaced pins.

NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED

Make your own little LED strip arrangement with this stick of NeoPixel LEDs. We crammed 8 of the tiny 5050 (5mm x 5mm) smart RGB LEDs onto a PCB with mounting holes and a chainable design. Use only one microcontroller pin to control as many as you can chain together! Each LED is addressable as the driver chip is inside the LED. Each one has ~18mA constant current drive so the color will be very consistent even if the voltage varies, and no external choke resistors are required making the design slim. Power the whole thing with 5VDC (4-7V works) and you’re ready to rock.

DonLuc1808Mk01

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Rotary Switch – 10 Position
1 x Rotary Switch Breakout
1 x Black Knob
1 x NeoPixel Stick – 8 x 5050 RGB LED
1 x 100K Potentiometer
1 x Black Knob
11 x 1K Ohm Resistance
17 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
6 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Size Breadboard
1 x USB Cable A to B

Arduino UNO

NEO – Digital 0
ROT – Analog 1
POT – Analog 0
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1808Mk01p.ino

getRot.ino

neopix.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Line Sensor Breakout – Mk07

Line Sensor Breakout – QRE1113 (Analog)

Description

This version of the QRE1113 breakout board features an easy-to-use analog output, which will vary depending on the amount of IR light reflected back to the sensor. This tiny board is perfect for line sensing applications and can be used in both 3.3V and 5V systems.

The board’s QRE1113 IR reflectance sensor is comprised of two parts – an IR emitting LED and an IR sensitive phototransistor. When you apply power to the VCC and GND pins the IR LED inside the sensor will illuminate. A 100 Ohm resistor is on-board and placed in series with the LED to limit current. A 10k Ohm resistor pulls the output pin high, but when the light from the LED is reflected back onto the phototransistor the output will begin to go lower. The more IR light sensed by the phototransistor, the lower the output voltage of the breakout board.

These sensors are widely used in line following robots – white surfaces reflect much more light than black, so, when directed towards a white surface, the voltage output will be lower than that on a black surface.

The power input and analog output pins are brought out to a 3-pin, 0.1″ pitch header. The board also has a single mounting hole if you want to screw the board onto something.

Features

* 5VDC operating voltage
* 25mA supply current
* Optimal sensing distance: 0.125″ (3mm)
* 0.30 x 0.55 “ (7.62 x 13.97 mm)

Common Reflectance Sensor

The QRE1113 is a common reflectance sensor often used in robotic line followers. The sensor works by shining an IR LED down and seeing how much of that light bounces back using a phototransistor. Because dark colors will bounce back less of the light, the sensor can be used to tell the difference between white and black areas. So an array of these can be used to help a robot determine where a dark line is on the ground so it can follow it. But they can also be used to determine proximity under an inch.

The an analog input on your microcontroller but still need an analog reading of how much light was reflected. It does this by allowing you to charge a capacitor on the board, and then timing how long it takes to discharge. The more light that is reflected, the less time it takes to discharge the capacitor. Hooking the QRE1113 to your Arduino is very simple. It just needs power (5V), ground, and an analog pin.

DonLuc1807Mk11

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Line Sensor Breakout – QRE1113 (Analog)
3 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

CRS – Analog 0
GND – GND
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk11p.ino

getSeven.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – Seven-Segment Display – Mk06

Seven-Segment Display

A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, basic calculators, and other electronic devices that display numerical information.

Your basic 7-segment LED. Common anode. Two decimal points, but only the one on the right is wired. Digit height is 0.6″. Overall height is 1″.

Common Cathode

In a common-cathode display, the positive terminal of all the eight LEDs are connected together and then connected to iSeven2 and iSeven8. To turn on an individual segment, you ground one of the pins. The following diagram shows the internal structure of the common-cathode seven-segment display.

The internal structure of both types is nearly the same. The difference is the polarity of the LEDs and common terminal. In a common cathode seven-segment display, all seven LEDs plus a dot LED have the cathodes connected To use this display, we need to connect VIN to make the individual segments light up. The following diagram shows the internal structure of common-cathode seven-segment display.

If your Arduino application only needs to display numbers, consider using a seven-segment display. The severn-segment display has seven LEDs arranged in the shape of number eight. They are easy to use and cost effective. The picture below shows a typical seven-segment display.

DonLuc1807Mk10

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Seven-Segment Display Red
7 x 220 ohm resistor
4 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
8 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

7S8 – Digital 8
7S7 – Digital 7
7S6 – Digital 6
7S5 – Digital 5
7S4 – Digital 4
7S3 – Digital 3
7S2 – Digital 2
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk10p.ino

getSeven.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – LED RGB – Mk05

LED RGB

LED RGB are tri-color LEDs with red, green, and blue emitters, in general using a four-wire connection with one common lead (anode or cathode). These LEDs can have either common positive leads in the case of a common anode LED, or common negative leads in the case of a common cathode LED. Others, however, have only two leads (positive and negative) and have a built-in electronic control unit.

LED RGB (Red-Green-Blue) are actually three LEDs in one! But that doesn’t mean it can only make three colors. Because red, green, and blue are the additive primary colors, you can control the intensity of each to create every color of the rainbow. Most RGB LEDs have four pins: one for each color, and a common pin. On some, the common pin is the anode, and on others, it’s the cathode.

Circuit Schematics (Common Cathode)

The cathode will be connected to the VIN and will be connected through 330 Ohms resistor. We will use PWM for simulating analog output which will provide different voltage levels to the LEDs so we can get the desired colors. We will use PWM for simulating analog output which will provide different voltage levels to the LEDs so we can get the desired colors.

Source Code

I will use the pins number 4, 3 and 2 and I will name them iRed, iGreen and iBlue. In the setup section we need to define them as outputs. At the bottom of the sketch we have this custom made function named setColor() which takes 3 different arguments red, green and blue. These arguments represents the brightness of the LEDs or the duty cycle of the PWM signal which is created using the analogWrite() function. These values can vary from 0 to 255 which represents 100 % duty cycle of the PWM signal or maximum LED brightness.

So now in the loop function we will make our program which will change the color of the LED each 2 second. In order to get red light on the LED we will call the setColor() function and set value of 255 for the iRed argument and 0 for the two others. Respectively we can get the two other basic colors, green and blue.

DonLuc1807Mk09

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x LED RGB (NSTM515AS)
1 x 330 ohm resistor
4 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

Red – Digital 4
Gre – Digital 3
Blu – Digital 2
VIN – +5V

DonLuc1807Mk09p.ino

getColor.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #7: RGB LCD Shield – IR Emitters and Detectors – Mk04

Infrared Emitters and Detectors

Side-looking Infrared Emitters and IR Detectors. These simple devices operate at 940nm and work well for generic IR systems including remote control and touch-less object sensing. Using a simple ADC on any microcontroller will allow variable readings to be collected from the detector. The emitter is driven up to 50mA with a current limiting resistor as with any LED device. The detect is a NPN transistor that is biased by incoming IR light.

Sold as a pair, with one Emitter and one Detector.

IR Emitter

Connect IR LED using a 270 ohm series resistor to the +5 supply (or to an Arduino pin if you want to switch the source on and off). Current draw is about 11 mA with a 270 ohm resistor. Current runs from anode to cathode. Flat on the case marks the cathode. To determine if the IR LED is the right way around.

IR Detector

A IR Detector is just like a regular transistor except the base lead is disabled or absent and light activates base current. The flat on the case marks the collector, the other lead is the emitter. Connect the collector to one end of a 10K ohm resistor and connect the other end of the resistor to a +5V supply (you can use the +5 pin on the Arduino). Connect the emitter to ground. The voltage should start out at +5V. When pointing the IR Detector, the voltage should drop down to near zero. To interface with the Arduino, make a second connection from the collector to an Arduino pin.

DonLuc1807Mk08

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x IR Emitter
1 x IR Detector
1 x 270 ohm resistor
1 x 10k ohm resistor
3 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
4 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

Det – Analog A0
Emi – Digital 2
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DonLuc1807Mk08p.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #9: Stepper – EasyDriver – Mk04

EasyDriver – Hook-Up

Once you have all the headers soldered on, it’s time to hook up the EasyDriver to your Arduino. Using the picture below, make all the necessary connections.

Note: The small stepper motor looks different than the one pictured. It should have a 4-pin connector on the end. This will be attached to the 4-pin male header facing upward. Because of the nature of this particular stepper, you can hook up the connector in either orientation, i.e. either the black wire on the left or the yellow wire on the left. It will work either way. If you are using a different motor, consult its documentation to find out which wires should go where.

IMPORTANT: Stepper motors require more power than can be supplied by the Arduino. In this example we will be powering the Uno with a 12V external supply. Notice that the power input (M+) on the EasyDriver is attached to the Vin pin on the Arduino. This will allow you to power both the Arduino and the motor with the same power supply.

DonLuc1807Mk07

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x EasyDriver
1 x Small Stepper Motor
1 x Pololu Mounting
3 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
4 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

Spe – Digital 3
Dir – Digital 2
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DonLuc1807Mk07p.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc

Project #8: Servo – Potentiometer Servo – Mk01

Servo Motor

A servo motor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with servo motors.

Servo motors have been around for a long time and are utilized in many applications. They are small in size but pack a big punch and are very energy-efficient. These features allow them to be used to operate remote-controlled or radio-controlled toy cars, robots and airplanes. Servo motors are also used in industrial applications, robotics, in-line manufacturing, pharmaceutics and food services.

Circuit

Servo motors have three wires: power, ground, and signal. The power wire is red, and should be connected to the 5V pin on the Arduino board. The ground wire is black and should be connected to a ground pin on the board. The signal pin is orange and should be connected to pin 9 on the board.

The potentiometer should be wired so that its two outer pins are connected to power (+5V) and ground, and its middle pin is connected to analog input 0 on the board.

DonLuc1805Mk07

1 x RGB LCD Shield 16×2 Character Display
1 x Arduino UNO – R3
1 x ProtoScrewShield
1 x Servo Motor
1 x 100k Ohm Potentiometer
1 x Potentiometer Knob
4 x Jumper Wires 3″ M/M
4 x Jumper Wires 6″ M/M
1 x Half-Size Breadboard

Arduino UNO

Ser – Digital 9
Pot – Analog A0
VIN – +5V
GND – GND

DonLuc1807Mk03.ino

setup.ino

Don Luc